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Consolidation of European State System PowerPoint Presentation
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Consolidation of European State System

Consolidation of European State System

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Consolidation of European State System

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Presentation Transcript

  1. Consolidation of European State System

  2. Limits of French Alsolutism • The Limits of French Absolutism • The War of Spanish Succession, 1701–1713 • The Death of Louis XIV and the Regency (1715)

  3. Territories After the Treaty of Utrecht, 1714

  4. France 5 yr old grandson of Louis XIV becomes king Louis XV (r. 1715-1774)

  5. British Rise and Dutch Decline

  6. England • Anne I (r. 1702-1714) • Anne had no heir despite having many kids • Jacobites in Scotland took advantage of this • Jacobites wanted to restore the Stuarts • Jacobites supported Bonnie Prince Charlie • Ultimately Jacobites failed at Culloden Field • George I (r.1714-1727) • Distant relative of Anne and James I • Established Hanoverian dynasty • George II (r. 1727-1760)

  7. Sir Robert Walpole 1st Prime Minister Led House of Commons 1721-1742

  8. From England to Great Britain • 1707 Act if Union • abolished Scottish Parliament • Scottish members in GB parliament • Scots recognized Hanoverian succession • Last major Scottish rebellion 1715

  9. The Dutch Eclipse • William died 1702, no heirs • 45 years with no stadholder • Dutch share of trade declined • population slow growth • Golden Age over

  10. The Balance of Power in the East The War of Polish Succession, 1733–1735

  11. AUSTRIA

  12. Austria In A Nutshell • Austria-Bohemia-Hungary ruled as one • Rulers were Hapsburgs • Fortunes wavered 1658-1748 • Under Leopold I, was strong • Under Joseph I and Charles VI, was weak • Under Maria Theresa: • At first was almost overrun • Ended up stronger than ever

  13. Leopold I (r. 1658-1705) • Holy Roman Emperor • Rather shy, very religious • Supported the arts • Palace of Schonbrunn imitated Versailles • Unlike Louis XIV, used aristocrats to rule • Invited foreign aristocrats to court • Prince Eugene became his general • Expanded Austria on behalf of Leopold • Primary source of new land was Turkey

  14. Leopold I

  15. Austria Joseph I

  16. Joseph I (r. 1705-1711) • Was significant for what he almost was • During the War of Spanish Succession: • Charles II names Philip of Anjou • to inherit Spanish lands intact • Grand Alliance proposed Joseph’s • brother, Charles • Would prevent Bourbon expansion Would have given Charles land to rule

  17. Joseph died in 1711, no heirs • Charles inherits • throne of Austria • Philip takes throne of Spain • This could have been the outcome • without a war!

  18. Territories After the Treaty of Utrecht, 1714

  19. Charles VI (r. 1711-1740) • Holy Roman Emperor • Spent most of rule trying to secure future • Only heir was Maria Theresa • Charles believed in diplomacy • Never invested in military • Pragmatic Sanction (1713) • Stated lands would be inherited intact • Other nations recognized document

  20. Maria Theresa in Trouble • Pragmatic Sanction ended up useless • As soon as Maria Theresa inherited: • Frederick II stole Silesia • Bavarian noble claimed her throne • France declared war to support Bavaria • Spanish went after Italian lands • Bohemia revolted

  21. The War of Austrian Succession • Lasted 1740-1748 • Maria Theresa proved to be smart: • Allied with Britain for money • Made deal with Hungarian Magyars • Offered them autonomy • In exchange received army • At end of war, things were in a stalemate: • Maria Theresa had protected herself • Prussia still had Silesia, though

  22. War of the Austrian Succession, 1740–1748

  23. Maria Theresa (r. 1740-1780) • Was very pious and moral: • Insisted on justice in realm • Reformed Church • Monasteries told to clean up act • Clergy had to pay taxes • Was also pragmatic: • Adopted French style of bureaucracy • Reorganized lands into provinces • Built up army for the future

  24. Maria Theresa at Home • Had a happy, enormous family • Husband was Francis Stephen • Francis and Maria loved each other • Francis became Holy Roman Emperor • Maria Theresa had 16 children • Most notable kids: • Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II • Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II • Marie Antoinette

  25. Maria Theresa

  26. Maria Theresa

  27. Francis I

  28. Seven Years War ,1756-1763

  29. In Europe: • Austria, Russia, Spain, Sweden, • France unite to stop Prussia • England, Portugal join with Prussia • In America: • Called French and Indian War

  30. Treaty of Paris1763 • Prussia keeps Silesia • France gives up all power in • North America • Canada to Great Britain • Louisiana to Spain • France keeps West Indies

  31. Prussia

  32. Pocket Full of Fredericks, Part II • King Frederick William I (r. 1713-1740) • Obsessed with military might • Had fourth-largest army in Europe • Never actually used army in battle • King Frederick II (r. 1740-1786) • Was an artistic boy, quite mistreated • Tolerant and interested in justice • Used army to expand Prussia • Became known as Frederick the Great

  33. Frederick II

  34. Prussia Under Frederick I

  35. Prussia Under Frederick II

  36. Where Prussia Would End Up… (1866)

  37. Balance of power in the east… Russia and Sweden

  38. Peter the Great (r. 1682-1725)

  39. Peter’s goal: Westernize Russia

  40. Palaces at St. Petersburg

  41. Russia & Sweden After the Great Northern War

  42. Europe 1740

  43. First Partition of Poland, 1772