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  1. Biology Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

  2. 16-3 The Process of Speciation 16-3 The Process of Speciation Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

  3. 16-3 The Process of Speciation • Natural selection and chance events can change the relative frequencies of alleles in a population and lead to speciation. • Speciation is the formation of new species. • A species is a group of organisms that breed with one another and produce fertile offspring. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

  4. Isolating Mechanisms • What factors are involved in the formation of new species? • The gene pools of two populations must become separated for them to become new species. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

  5. Isolating Mechanisms • Isolating Mechanisms • As new species evolve, populations become reproductively isolated from each other. • When the members of two populations cannot interbreed and produce fertile offspring, reproductive isolation has occurred. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

  6. Isolating Mechanisms • Reproductive isolation can develop in a variety of ways, including: • behavioral isolation • geographic isolation • temporal isolation Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

  7. Isolating Mechanisms • Behavioral Isolation  • Behavioral isolation occurs when two populations are capable of interbreeding but have differences in courtship rituals or other reproductive strategies that involve behavior. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

  8. Isolating Mechanisms • Geographic Isolation  • Geographic isolation occurs when two populations are separated by geographic barriers such as rivers or mountains. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

  9. Isolating Mechanisms • Geographic barriers do not guarantee the formation of new species. • If two formerly separated populations can still interbreed, they remain a single species. • Potential geographic barriers may separate certain types of organisms but not others. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

  10. Isolating Mechanisms • Temporal Isolation   • Temporal isolation occurs when two or more species reproduce at different times. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

  11. Testing Natural Selection in Nature • Testing Natural Selection in Nature • Studies showing natural selection in action involve descendants of the finches that Darwin observed in the Galápagos Islands. • The finches Darwin saw were different, but he hypothesized that they had descended from a common ancestor. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

  12. Testing Natural Selection in Nature Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

  13. Testing Natural Selection in Nature Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

  14. Testing Natural Selection in Nature • Peter and Rosemary Grant tested Darwin’s hypothesis, which relied on two testable assumptions: • For beak size and shape to evolve, there must be enough heritable variation in those traits to provide raw material for natural selection. • Differences in beak size and shape must produce differences in fitness, causing natural selection to occur. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

  15. Testing Natural Selection in Nature • The Grants tested these hypotheses on the medium ground finch on Daphne Major, one of the Galápagos Islands. • During the rainy season, there is plenty of food. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

  16. Testing Natural Selection in Nature • During droughts, food becomes scarce. • Individual birds with different-sized beaks had different chances of survival during a drought. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

  17. Testing Natural Selection in Nature • When food was scarce, individuals with large beaks were more likely to survive. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

  18. Testing Natural Selection in Nature • The Grants provided evidence of the process of evolution. • Beak size can be changed by natural selection. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

  19. Speciation in Darwin’s Finches • Describe the process of speciation in the Galápagos finches. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

  20. Speciation in Darwin's Finches • Speciation in Darwin's Finches • Speciation in the Galápagos finches occurred by: • founding of a new population • geographic isolation • changes in new population's gene pool • reproductive isolation • ecological competition Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

  21. Speciation in Darwin's Finches • Founders Arrive  A few finches—species A—travel from South America to one of the Galápagos Islands. There, they survive and reproduce. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

  22. Speciation in Darwin's Finches • Geographic Isolation Some birds from species A cross to a second island. The two populations no longer share a gene pool. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

  23. Changes in the Gene Pool Speciation in Darwin's Finches Seed sizes on the second island favor birds with large beaks. The population on the second island evolves into population B, with larger beaks. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

  24. Speciation in Darwin's Finches • Reproductive Isolation • If population B birds cross back to the first island, they will not mate with birds from population A. • Populations A and B are separate species. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

  25. Speciation in Darwin's Finches • Ecological Competition • As species A and B compete for available seeds on the first island, they continue to evolve in a way that increases the differences between them. • A new species—C—may evolve. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

  26. Speciation in Darwin's Finches • Continued Evolution • This process of isolation, genetic change, and reproductive isolation probably repeated itself often across the entire Galápagos island chain. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

  27. Studying Evolution Since Darwin • Studying Evolution Since Darwin • Scientific evidence supports the theory that living species descended with modification from common ancestors that lived in the ancient past. • Scientists predict that as new fossils are found, they will continue to expand our understanding of how species evolved. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

  28. 16-3 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

  29. 16-3 • When two species do not reproduce because of differences in mating rituals, the situation is referred to as • temporal isolation. • geographic isolation. • behavioral isolation. • reproductive isolation. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

  30. 16-3 • The most important factor involved in the evolution of the Kaibab and Abert squirrels of the American Southwest appears to be • temporal isolation. • geographic isolation. • behavioral isolation. • different food sources. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

  31. 16-3 • One finding of the Grants' research on generations of Galápagos finches was that • natural selection did not occur in the finches • natural selection can take place often and very rapidly. • beak size had no effect on survival rate of the finches. • natural selection was slow and permanent. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

  32. 16-3 • All of the following played a role in speciation of Galápagos finches EXCEPT • no changes in the gene pool. • separation of populations. • reproductive isolation. • natural selection. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

  33. 16-3 • Beak size in the various groups of Galápagos finches changed primarily in response to • climate. • mating preference. • food source. • availability of water. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall