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GENOCIDE. Genocide: An attempt to eliminate, in whole or in large part, a particular group of people (such as national, ethnic, racial, religious, social, or political groups).

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  1. GENOCIDE • Genocide: An attempt to eliminate, in whole or in large part, a particular group of people (such as national, ethnic, racial, religious, social, or political groups). • Mass Murder: The intentional killing of a large number of people who are either unwilling or unable to defend themselves. • Ethnic Cleansing: The attempt to remove a particular group of people from a particular geographic area through the use of terror. • Discrimination: Positive or negative behavior toward a particular group • rules or laws directed against a group or its members; • or practices that subordinate people of a particular group. • positive behaviors, policies and practices that systematically advantage one group over another.

  2. examples of genocide, mass murder, ethnic cleansing and discrimination ETHNIC CLEANSING U.S. & Native Americans Pop. of NAs reduced from about 2million to 500,000 over 300 years. -- mass murder -- starvation -- war -- forced removals -- disease Yugoslavia Serbs in Bosnia (1980s,1990s) -- terror, expulsion, and thousands found in mass graves GENOCIDE Nazis: (1933-1945) Jews, Gypsies, gays & lesbians, communists, mentally ill KILLED: @11 MILLION Turks: Armenians in WWI (1914-1918) KILLED:@2 MILLION MASS MURDER Slave Trade (U.S. & many W. European countries): @1600-1850 KILLED:@20 MILLION Turks Armenians, 1890s KILLED 300-400,000 DISCRIMINATION History of many non-Northern European groups in U.S. -- Irish, Italians, eastern Europeans, Jews, African-Americans, Latinos, Asians, etc. Women around the world Hindu Caste system

  3. Discrimination Ethnic Cleansing Geno- cide Mass murder 1. Genocide is a type of ethnic cleansing, mass murder, and discrim. 2. Ethnic cleansing is a type of discrimination. 3. Mass murder can be used for genocide and ethnic cleansing, but can also occur for reasons other than genocide, ethnic cleansing, and discrimination. 4. There are many types of discrimination that have nothing to do with genocide, ethnic cleansing, or mass murder.

  4. Relationships between Democide, Mass Murder, and Genocide Democide Genocide mass murder All genocides are democides. Most mass murder is democide. Some mass murder is genocide, but some is not.

  5. Mass Murder and Genocide in the 20th Centuryfrom R. J. Rummel, http://www.hawaii.edu/powerkills • TOTALITARIAN REGIMES • USSR, 1917-1987 62,000,000 • Chinese Communists, 1923-1987 39,000,000 • Nazi Germany, 1933-1945 21,000,000 • AUTHORITARIAN REGIMES • Chinese Nationalists, 1928-1949 10,000,000 • Japan, 1936-1945 6,000,000 • Turkey, 1909-1923 2,600,000 • Cambodia, 1975-1980 2,000,000 • Note: These numbers are best guesstimates. In most cases, because of denials, secrecy, and coverups, it is impossible to know the exact number with precision.

  6. Mass Killing is common in Africa • Congo • 4 million deaths since 1998, prompted by endless fighting between armed gangs/warlords. • Sudan (Darfur) • 800,000 dead since 2002, in tribal/religious warfare/genocide • Uganda • Idi Amin (dictator) killed 400,000 of his own people in the 1970s and 1980s. (Last King of Scotland) • Since 2002, another 100,000 dead from rebellion in North. • Nigerian Civil War (1970s) • 400,000 dead • Rwanda (1990s) • 800,000 dead (about half from gov’t-sponsored genocide) • (Hotel Rwanda)

  7. Civilian Death Tolls by Democracies vs. Totalitarian/Authoritarian Regimes in WWII • Numbers Approximate • Civilian Dead Resulting from Civilian Dead Resulting from • Allied invasion&bombing of Germany • German Invasion, mass murder: Total German civilian dead: • @21 million @2 million • Allied bombing (including nuclear) of Japanese cities • Japanese Invasion, mass murder: Total Japanese civilian dead: • @20 million @600,000 • Sources: • R. J. Rummel, http://www.hawaii.edu/powerkills • Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_II_casualties http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mass_deaths_and_atrocities_of_the_twentieth_century • J.V. O’Brien, http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~jobrien/reference/ob62.html

  8. Civilian Deaths in the Modern Middle East, since 1975 • Authoritarian Regimes: • Ethiopia: 800,000 (“class enemies,” Eritrean war) • Iraq: 100,000 (Kurds, Shi’ites, Kuwaitis) • Iran: 60,000 (Kurds, Bahai, Monarchists) • Sudan: 2,000,000 (Darfur, Africans, Christians) • Syria: 21,000 Kurds, Sunnis • Democracy: • Israel: @15,000 (Palestinians, Lebanese) • Sources: http://genocidewatch.org/aboutgenocide/genpolmmchart.htm • http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/3694350.stm • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1982_Lebanon_War#Casualties

  9. Civilian Deaths by Authoritarian Regimes vs. Democracies • llustrates two key points: • War pushes democracies in an authoritarian direction • democracies kill civilians mostly during wars • willingness to cause and justify civilian deaths • Democracies almost never commit mass murder of their own people, whereas authoritarian and totalitarian regimes frequently do so.

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