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Medieval Music

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Medieval Music

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Medieval Music

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  1. Medieval Music • Church is the dominant patron • Gregorian chant- most surviving MSS are monophonic-Gregory, Hildegard • Polyphony used (rarely) to decorate chant- Leonin, Machaut • Some secular music survives- Troubadours & trouvères

  2. Renaissance Music • Church continues as dominant patron • Secular princes and middle class patrons • Polyphony more common- ideal is 4 a cappella equal voices- imitation is frequently used- text matters (word painting used) • Madrigals are important secular form • Josquin, Palestrina, Weelkes

  3. The Baroque Era • New era, begins, c. 1600 (or earlier) • Northern Italy • Highly expressive style (continues elements of Renaissance, but often carried to extremes) • Monumental (large-scale designs) • Very ornate details • Dynamic & active

  4. The Baroque & the Arts • “Barroco” = misshapen pearl • Negative connotation of “Baroque” • Dynamic, active shapes • Extreme contrasts • Emotion favored over classical balance/control

  5. “The Baroque” – Music Traits • c. 1600-1750 • Emphasis on expression • New texture (soprano vs. bass) • Basso continuo (instrumental foundation) • Voices & Instruments mix • Instrumental music now equal • Old style (Palestrina style) still used

  6. Sources of the early Baroque Style • Florentine Camerata – sought to recapture the expressive power of Ancient music • Greek Drama – included sung text • “Monody” – solo voice w/ accompaniment • Stile rappresentativo – flexible style of solo singing used on the stage • Two vocal styles- Recitative (recitativo = “recited”)- Aria ( = “song” or “ayre”)

  7. St. Mark’s Church (Venice)

  8. St. Mark’s (Venice) - nave

  9. St. Mark’s (Venice) – choir loft

  10. St. Mark’s (Venice) – choir loft Sound Example:Giovanni Gabrieli - Canzon in the 7th tone for 8 parts

  11. Orfeo (1607) • 1st important opera to survive • Premiered at Court of Mantua (1607) • Libretto – based on Greek legend of “Orpheus and Euridice” • Total theatrical experience – singing, orchestra, acting, costumes, dancing, stagecraft, etc.

  12. Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643) • 1st great composer of the Baroque era • Composed both secular and sacred works • Composer of 1st important opera (Orfeo) • Successor to Giovanni Gabrieli at St. Mark’s (Venice)

  13. Monteverdi, Orfeo(YouTube excerpts) • Orfeo - "Toccata" and "Dal mio Permesso" (first solo) (Listening Guide, p. 120) • Orfeo - Dance (Act I) • Orfeo - Arrival of Messenger into "Tu se' morta" (Act II) (Listening Guide, p. 121)