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Innovative Management of Student-Run Space Research Projects PI: Dr. Jeffrey A. Hoffman Professor of Aerospace Engineering - MIT Co-I: Col. John Keesee Research Staff: Paul Wooster Graduate Student: James Whiting Presentation at 1st CPMR Fellows Conference 20 January, 2005 Columbia, MD.
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Innovative Management of Student-Run Space Research Projects PI: Dr. Jeffrey A. Hoffman Professor of Aerospace Engineering - MIT Co-I: Col. John Keesee Research Staff: Paul Wooster Graduate Student: James Whiting Presentation at 1st CPMR Fellows Conference 20 January, 2005 Columbia, MD
Presentation Outline • Background and Motivation • Mars Gravity Project • Survey of Student Space Projects • Evaluation of NASA Processes • Suggestions for a NASA-wide Student Space Research Program • Future Plans
Background and Motivation • MIT has had significant student involvement in space projects • CDIO Capstone Courses (SPHERES, ARGOS, EMFF)
3 DOF Testing of Multiple SPHERES on MSFC Flat Floor (Oct. 2004)
Background and Motivation • MIT has had significant student involvement in space projects • CDIO Capstone Courses (SPHERES, ARGOS, EMFF) • MIT Rocket Team "formed in an effort to become the first student group to launch a rocket into space. Begun in 1998, the team has developed a new type of rocket engine, and is currently in the process of testing the engine design."
Background and Motivation • MIT has had significant student involvement in space projects • CDIO Capstone Courses (SPHERES, ARGOS, EMFF) • MIT Rocket Team "formed in an effort to become the first student group to launch a rocket into space. Begun in 1998, the team has developed a new type of rocket engine, and is currently in the process of testing the engine design.” • Mars Gravity Biosatellite Project
Introduction Science Engineering Management Mars Gravity Biosatellite To investigate the effects of Martian gravity on mammals • Biosatellite carrying 15 mice, in 0.38g artificial gravity environment • Five week mission in low Earth orbit launching in mid-2008 • Reentry with rapid land-based recovery for post-flight analysis • First prolonged investigation of mammalian adaptation to partial gravity • Initially a joint effort among MIT, the University of Washington, and the University of Queensland, with increased industry partner involvement as program has developed • Superb educational value - over 300 students involved to date • Total mission cost estimated at approximately $30 million
Deployment and Transition Deorbit Orbital experiment, 5 weeks Launch Entry, Descent, and Landing Recovery and Analysis Introduction Science Engineering Management Mission Profile
~6 months @ -1.5% / mo -18% to -45% BMD lossestotal 1.5-fold higher risk of fracture for every SD below age-matched population For astronauts age 35-40, these losses represent a range of 2x to 6x increased fracture risk! ~6 months@ -1.5% / mo Mars Mission: Bone Mineral Density ~18 months @ unknown rate BMD-Bone Mineral Density SD-Standard Deviation (Looker, 1998; De Laet et al., 1997; Hoffman & Kaplan, 1997, Cummings et al, 2002)
Science Introduction Engineering Management Scientific Objectives In a suitable mammalian model, quantify the extent of the following effects seen as a result of extended exposure to Mars-equivalent levels of artificial gravity: • Bone loss • Muscular atrophy • Neurovestibular adaptation • Immunology & radiation effects … as compared to both microgravity and 1-g physiology, wherever possible.
Science Introduction Engineering Management Science Design • Female BALB/cByJ mice • Individually housed • Adults, 15-20 weeks old • 15 animals for 35 days • Provides >90% statistical power for representative skeletal parameters • 2 hour recovery planned • Ground controls • Vivarium • Spacecraft Simulated • Rotational • Static
Science Introduction Engineering Management Ongoing Development • Partial Load Suspension • Novel ground model for musculoskeletal adaptation to partial gravity • Correlates histology and in vivo strain data • Leverages collaborations with SUNY Stony Brook and NASA Ames • Murine Automated Urine Sampler • Extends NASA CPG urine preservative for autonomous animal waste collection • Post-flight biochemical analysis reveals time course of musculoskeletal adaptation • Development in conjunction with Payload Systems Inc. through SBIR-Phase I grant • Gondola Centrifuge • Vestibular effects of chronic rotation • Demonstrated feasibility of S/C spin-rate
Centrifuge Study r ≈ 36 cm • Key Parameters: • 8 Rotating, 8 Control mice • 6 week study • Adaptation vs. desensitization • Otolith vs. canal effects • General health condition ω ≈ 34 rpm 1.07g • Demonstrated no significant contraindications for chronic 35-rpm rotation in female BALB/cByJ mice 65° 1.07g
To Sun Engineering Introduction Science Management Flight System Overview 1.2 m
Atmospheric Processing System Oxygen Tank Water Reserve Rodent Habitat Engineering Introduction Science Management Payload Layout
Rodent Habitat Engineering Introduction Science Management Animal Support Module • Waste Removal • Video Monitoring • Water/Food Supply • 60 Air Changes/Hour • 12 Hour Lighting Cycle • Airflow Monitoring • Contaminant Control • Contingency Euthanasia
Engineering Introduction Science Management Air Circulation Loop Test Objectives: • Theoretical flow model verification • Rates and evenness of flow measurements • Pressure drops and optimal blower power measurements • Component weights, interface, and space constraints determination
Engineering Introduction Science Management Entry, Descent, and Landing Aft faring Main chute Drogue chute Heat shield Mortar & Pilot chute Payload housing Airbag arrangement (conceptual only)
Engineering Introduction Science Management EDL Flight Phases Mortar deployment of pilot chute (~18km alt) Drogue chute slows vehicle to ~30m/s Drogue chute deployed by pilot and mortar detachment Main chute deployed by drogue detachment (~1500m alt) TPS separated at main chute deployment Inflation of airbag landing system Landing of payload at Woomera
Engineering Introduction Science Management Spacecraft Bus
Thermal Load from RV, Sun Engineering Introduction Science Management Thermal Load Path To Sun Internal Support Truss Light Band Separation System Side Panel Radiator Baseplate Radiator
Propulsion/ACS/GNC • 3-axis attitude maneuvering capability using small hydrazine thrusters and sensor suite • GPS receiver for orbit determination • De-orbit: • 180 m/s delta-v • 3-axis control • Spin-stabilization being considered • Burn time of 5-8 minutes • 15-18 minutes from burn initiation to atmospheric interface at approx. 100km • Current pointing accuracy of 0.75º; sufficient to deorbit into landing zone
C&DH/Communications/Power • Monitor all systems and transfer information • Communicate with ground stations using S-band antennas (max 6 hours between contacts) • Generate power with 4 solar panels • Provide power storage via Li-ion batteries Universal Space Network Coverage 130º Cone Angle
Diverse Student Team • Approximately 300 students involved to-date • Strong participation of women and other minorities traditionally underrepresented in Science and Technology
Design courses Undergraduate research Graduate education International exchanges Summer internship program Leadership training Interdisciplinary advising Joint Mass./Wash. Space Grant Initiative Over 300 students involved to date Over 50 advisors actively involved from academia, government, and industry Management Introduction Science Engineering Workforce Development
Exciting and informing the public are key elements of our mission Approximately 1,500 students and public participants reached to date Department Open Houses Lectures at New England AIAA and National Space Society Boston Chapter Alumni Club Talks City Year Boston Spring Break Program Cub Scout Pack Meetings Pierce School Science Fest Elementary and High School Visits Scouting Merit Badge Workshops MIT Mars Week Presentations Yuri’s Night Events Considerable media coverage and internet interest Students inspiring students Management Introduction Science Engineering Education/Public Outreach
Incredible Opportunity • Major contribution to human Mars exploration • Tremendous opportunity for workforce development and public inspiration • Low overall cost • Rapid science return • A step we can take right now
New Developments for Mars Gravity Biosatellite Project • Space Exploration Vision makes Mars Gravity Biosatellite much more important to NASA’s core mission.
Keys to Exploration Understanding partial-g artificial gravity • Requirements specification for spacecraft radius, angular velocity Understanding Marshypogravity effects • Countermeasure development for surface operations • Rehabilitation scope
New Developments for Mars Gravity Biosatellite Project • Space Exploration Vision makes Mars Gravity Biosatellite much more important to NASA’s core mission. • Cheaper access to space seems like it may actually happen, which will make student satellites much more affordable.
Launch Vehicle • Payload unique requirements: • Access less than 48 hours prior to launch • Active during pre-launch and launch operations • Launch mass and volume: • 500 kg to 400km, i > 31º (for AU reentry) • 1.2m diameter by 2m tall cylinder • Launch from Cape Canaveral • Secondary ELV not likely due to unique req’s • SpaceX Falcon I ($6M) is baseline launch vehicle • Engineering to have launch option on OSP Minotaur (~$20M) • Co-primary on larger vehicle also possible
Our Dilemma How should Mars Gravity Biosatellite be managed if it is to become a real flight project? • Risk Identification and Mitigation • Continuity • Other Project Management Skills
3 Major Types of Student Space Projects • Projects managed through a class structure (at MIT: CDIO projects, like SPHERES)
3 Major Types of Student Space Projects • Projects managed through a class structure (at MIT: CDIO projects, like SPHERES) • Projects with indefinite schedules (at MIT: Rocket Club)
3 Major Types of Student Space Projects • Projects managed through a class structure (at MIT: CDIO projects, like SPHERES) • Projects with indefinite schedules (at MIT: Rocket Club) • Projects where professionals and students play significant roles (at MIT: Mars Gravity Biosatellite)
3 Major Types of Student Space Projects • Projects managed through a class structure (at MIT: CDIO projects, like SPHERES) • Projects with indefinite schedules (at MIT: Rocket Club) • Projects where professionals and students play significant roles (at MIT: Mars Gravity Biosatellite) • Also many examples of students playing minor roles in major satellite projects (e.g. through internships, co-ops, etc.)
Typical Challenges for Student Space Projects • Personnel turnover • Skill Base • Documentation • Risk Assessment and Mitigation • Proper mixture and integration of professionals and students • Funding • Lack of experience in project management
Survey of Student Space Research Projects • Terriers (Boston University) • FalconSat (USAF Academy) • SNOE (U. Colo.) • CATSAT (UNH) • Bayernsat (Tech. Univ. Munich) • MIMIC (National Space Grant Project, w/ JPL) • MIT Rocket Team • Mars Gravity Biosatellite • MIT CDIO Projects
Questions on Survey • Personnel • Documentation • Reviews • Risk Assessment • Testing • Schedules • Cost • Success
Questions on Survey • Personnel • Mix of students, professionals • Technical • Science • Management • Student commitment • Volunteer • Paid • Credit • Average duration of work commitment • Percentage of turnover every semester/year
Lessons from SNOE - 1Design of a Low Cost Satellite • Try to do it like a rocket experiment • Use project management experience from earlier projects • Choose important, focused scientific objectives • Collect the minimum amount of data necessary to achieve objectives • Use instruments that have been developed • Use a simple, spinning satellite • Use subsystems with lots of heritage, but use modern computer hardware
Lessons from SNOE - 2Areas of maximum student participation • Computer-aided drawing, design and analysis • Design and testing of flight computer software • Design, assembly and testing of solar panels and batteries • Testing and calibration of instruments using computers • Testing of integrated spacecraft using computer software • Operation of satellite in orbit using same computer S/W
Lessons from SNOE - 3 Personnel • LASP Professionals • 3 Scientists • 10 Engineers (3 near full-time, 7 part-time) • 2 entry-level professionals (former CU students) • Various support personnel • Students • 15 Graduate, 19 Undergraduate • Attrition • 7 students graduated, 19 hired since CDR • 9 left by graduation, several others moved to other projects • No resignations
Lessons from FalconSat -1 • Project done as part of course requirement for cadets (Students get credit but no pay.) • 34 students (different majors) • 3 Management • 2 Computer Science • 3 Physics • 6 Space Operations • 20 Astronautical Engineering • Faculty support/oversight: 3 Physics, 8 Astronautical Engineering • Paid support personnel: 1 full-time machinist, 2 part-time electrical engineering technicians
Lessons from FalconSat -2 • Complete student turnover every year (new senior class) • No transition - cadets interview for jobs during 1st class, are selected by 3rd class and usually are very knowledgeable about their positions by mid-term. Keep jobs in spring semester. • Student managers are from the management department (interview for management vs. technical positions) • Typical time commitment ~15 hr per week • Motto: “Cadets learn space by doing space.” Cadets do the work, and the supervisors look over their shoulders.
Lessons from FalconSat -3 • Documentation • Cadets really learn the importance of documentation, since all knowledge has to be passed from class to class. • All documents kept on web page/network drive. Documents are reviewed by the faculty for thoroughness. • Reviews • Cadet teams must give internal reviews every 5 lessons. • All major program reviews (PDR, CDR, TRR, etc.) held with outside visitors. • For all major reviews, have management review meeting and chief engineer meeting every 2 weeks with launch provider/government oversight/integrating contractor (Boeing)