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March 2004 PowerPoint Presentation

March 2004

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March 2004

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  1. March 2004 E. Olivier

  2. Classification of books • Format • Size, shape, illustrations, design, paper, binding, typography • Toy books, board books, wordless books, picture books, illustrated books, chapter books • Genre • Literature in which the members share common characteristics • Fiction, nonfiction, prose, poetry, realism, fantasy

  3. Format:Ratio of text to illustrations • Wordless picture books: no text • Picture books: text & pictures tell the story • Illustrated books: text gains more importance & illustrations are fewer • Junior novels: no illustrations at all

  4. Books for the early years:Toybooks & Board books • Toybooks • Toylike elements: flaps, levers, fabric, movable parts, pop-ups • Very young children • Board books • Heavy cardboard & laminated • Toddlers – licking & chewing, turned easily • Value • Develop closeness & mutual enjoyment • Introduction to the world of literature

  5. Nursery rhymes Written by adults for adults Appeal: Rhythm Rhyme Humor Participation Associations with home & pleasant surroundings Value: Useful preschool & primary grades Develop language skills, story sequence & structure Encourage children to read Books for the early years:Mother Goose

  6. Books for the early years:Concept books • Organize objects/events into categories • Data falls into patterns under a general concept/idea • Help children to understand concrete & abstract ideas • Counting books & alphabet books • Value: • Introduce & clarify objects • Develop vocabulary & language skills

  7. Books for emergent readers:Predictable books • Patterns allow the reader to predict what is going to happen next • Events are repeated • Repetition of language • Rhythm & rhyme • Value • Children say along or “read” • Help children to read naturally

  8. Books for emergent readers:Big books • Large format books • A group can see the illustrations & text clearly • Value • Enjoyment • Reading instruction • Shared reading experiences • Participation • Reading is placed in a social context

  9. Books for emergent readers:Beginning to read books • Children are eager to read on their own • Easy to read, I can read, Ready to read • Fantasy, realistic fiction, folk tales • Value • Children read new material with a good chance of success • Opportunity to figure out the meaning on their own • Reinforce the idea of reading

  10. Discussion time • Visualize your room & home when you were a child. What in your environment contributed to your literary development? • Plan a concept book for preschool children • Plan a toy book for preschool children • What was your favourite rhyme as a child? Motivate.

  11. Picture books • Any book in which the illustrations are as important as the text • This includes toy & board books, Mother Goose, concept books & books for beginning readers • Types • Picture story books • Narratives that use text & illustrations • Wordless books • No or very little text • Picture books of poetry and song • Narratives in rhyme & rhythm

  12. Evaluating picture books • Text & illustrations should tell the story • Illustrations should be appropriate • Clear language • Characters should be well developed • No stereotyping • Accurate setting • Not be condescending • Size, type, jacket, title page, text should be appropriate • Paper & binding of high quality

  13. Poetry books • Concentrated language • Sound, rhyme, rhythm, figurative language, imagery, spacing • Poetry books may also be narratives • Good poetry has fresh ideas & insight • Teachers should consider: • Quality • Age / background • Poetry preferences • Cultural diversity • Variety in form & content • Relationship between children’s experiences & classroom activities

  14. Traditional literatureFolktales / Fairy tales • Origin: oral tradition • Associations with writer: Grimm’s fairy tales • Formula • Openings : Once upon a time • Quick presentation of the problem • Uncomplicated characters: good & bad • Quick pace of the plot • Inevitable fate of the villains • Value • Strengthens the imagination • Simplifies moral questions • It can promote cultural & global awareness

  15. Traditional literature Fables • Stories usually about animals that teach a lesson • Stories are short but the meaning complex • One-line moral at the end • Aesop’s tales well-known • Ages 8 – 9 years old • Value • Quick retellings & dramatization • Cooperative learning

  16. Traditional literature Myths • Longer stories that explain the origins of the earth • Focus: gods, ancient heroes, ancestors and natural phenomena • Setting: home of the gods

  17. Traditional literature Legends • Focus on people that are extraordinary • Based on the lives of real /supposedly real people • King Arthur • Picture books reflects life in medieval times

  18. Fantasy • Elements do not exist outside the imagination • Categories • Talking toys – Winnie the Pooh • Personified animals • Imaginary animals – dragons • Tiny people – elves • Curious occurrences – time travel • Science fiction – space travel • Value • Helps children understand real life

  19. Evaluating fantasy • The fantastic element must be believable • Fantasy must be central to the story • Details must be consistent with the rest of the story • Main characters must be plausible & believable

  20. Realistic fiction • Based on what happened or could have happened • Common themes: • Common experiences – everyday events • Personal growth – physical or emotional maturing • Relationships with family or friends • Problems – death • Life in a pluralistic society – other countries

  21. Categories of realistic fiction • Sports stories • Animal stories • Mysteries – action and suspense • Humorous stories • Good realistic fiction • Accurate setting • Avoids clichés in content • Should avoid didacticism • Consistent style • Value • Helps children see similarities & differences among peoples

  22. Informational books • More nonfiction books than any other writing • Present facts, concepts & generalizations about a topic • Evaluating non-fiction • Accuracy of facts • Organization – logical • Writing style – interesting & understandable • Illustrations – accurate & enhance • Value: • Broadens children’s knowledge

  23. Discussion time • What was your favourite folktale and why? • Read and compare the first line in several folktales. Which line is the most effective? • Select a picture book and evaluate it according to the criteria • Select a book of animal fantasy and one in which animals are portrayed realistically. Which do you prefer and why? • Read a fantasy book and evaluate it according to the criteria

  24. Bibliography • Aesopus, Paxton, T. & Rayevsky, R. 1993. Birds of a feather and other Aesop’s fables. New York : Morrow Junior books [J 398.245 AESO]. • Bunting, E. 1994. Smoky night. San Diego Harcourt Brace & Co [J 823 BUNT]. • By die skool. 1993. Boleswa: Macmillan [439.368 KOM]. Carle, E. 1987. Papa, please get the moon for me. London : Hodder and Stoughton [J 823 CARL]. • Corbett, G. 1984. Working in the garden. London: Walker House [J 428.12 COR]. De Paola, T. 1985. Tomie de Paola’s Mother Goose. London: Methuen Children’s Books [FJ 398.9 MOT]. • Dodd, H. & Iversen, D. 1999. Hercules and other Greek legends. Auckland : Lands End [428.6 WILD]. • Dupasquier, P. 1993. Follow that chimp. London : Walker Books [J 823.06 DUPA].Fowler, R. 1982. ‘n Muis in die huis. Pretoria: JP van der Walt.

  25. Glazer, J.I. 1997. Introduction to children’s literature. Prentice Hall: Macmillan.Hawkins, C. 1983. What's the time, Mr Wolf. Johannesburg: William Heinemann [J 529.7 HAW]. • Hughes, M. 1997. Minibeast encyclopedia. Oxford : Heinemann [Pr 595.7 HUGH]. • Kleynhans, A. & Kincaid, E. 1984. Sneeuwitjie – Ek lees lekker. Kaapstad: Human & Rossouw [J 398.21 GRI]. • Komnick, G. 1974. Botter aas. Kaapstad : Malherbe [J 839.363 LIND]. • Kruger, J.A. 1991. Kinderkeur: ‘n gids tot bekroonde Suid-Afrikaanse kleuter-, kinder- en jeugboeke sedert 1989. Pretoria: UNISA [028.5079 KRU]. • Lewis, S. 1987. One-minute Greek myths. New York: Doubleday [K 398.45 LEW]. • Loewen, V.H. & Pearson, D. 1997. The best book for Terry Lee. Auckland : Shortland Publications [Pr 823 BEST]. • Lohann, C. 1986. Kinderlektuur. Pretoria: HAUM.

  26. Pienkowski, J. 1992. Phone book. London : Orchard Books [J 823 PIEN]. • Rousseau, L. and Harries, K. 1976. Herelandgoed. Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau [EDUJ 839.363 ROUSSEAU]. • Sendak, M. 1967. Wildekanis land. Kaapstad : HAUM [EDUJ 839.363 SENDAK]. • Snyman, L. 1983. Die kind se literatuur. Durbanville : Kinderpers. • Small, T. 1991. The legend of William Tell. New York: Bantam [K 398.2 SMA]. • Stock, C. 1991. Armien gaan see toe. Kaapstad : Human & Rousseau [J 839.363 STOC]. • Three little pigs. 1983. Brimax Story Time Board Books [J 398.21 JAC]. • Vels, V. 1999. Liewe Heksie en die rekenaar en ander nuwe Liewe Heksie-stories. Kaapstad : Human en Rousseau [J 839.363 VELS]