Documenting Sources: Using APA Format A workshop by the Tiffin University Learning Center
Why use APA Format? • Easily cross reference sources • Consistent formats help with the writing process • Gives credit to those who deserve it • Protects yourself against plagiarism
Where can you find APA format? • Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 5th ed. • www.apastyle.org • Keys for Writers 4th ed. by Ann Raimes • Your professor may require specific guidelines, so make sure you ask your professors!
Four main concerns of APA style • In-text citations • Cover page • Abstract • Reference page
What are in-text citations? • Information provided to the reader in order to briefly identify the source later on in your reference page. • Typically author’s last name, year, and page(s) the information is from; all in parentheses • For example: A traumatic response frequently entails a “delayed, uncontrolled repetitive appearance of hallucinations and other intrusive phenomena” (Caruth, 1996, p.11).
When should you use in-text citations? • When quoting ANY words that are not your own • Quoting can mean using quotation marks, OR repeating another source word for word • When summarizing facts or ideas • Take ideas from another source, but using your own words, STILL needs to be cited • When paraphrasing a source
In-text citation exception • In-text citations typically follow the quote; however, there are some exceptions. • Caruth (1996) states that a traumatic response frequently entails a “delayed, uncontrolled repetitive appearance of hallucinations and other intrusive phenomena” (p.11).
Other in-text citations • Two or more works in the same parentheses: • (Caruth, 1996; Fussell, 1975; Showalter, 1997). • Work with six or more authors. • (Smith et al., 1998). • No author, use abbreviated title: • Title: “California Cigarette Tax Deters Smokers” • Citation: (“California”, 1999). • Reference to a website: use HTML • (www.purdue.edu).
Cover page • Papers written in APA style format REQUIRE a cover page. • Cover pages include a running head, page header and number, paper title, author, and affiliation for sure. Some papers require course number, professor’s name, and due date as well. • Once again, ask your professor to see what he or she may require
What is a running head? • An abbreviated title • Flush against the upper left hand corner of the cover page, after the page header and page number • Typed in all upper case letters
What is an abstract? • An abstract summarizes the entire paper to no more than one paragraph in length. • Must be at least half the page • Follows the cover page, and prior to the first page of actual writing • Has the word “Abstract” typed at the top center of the page • Can have quotes and in-text citations • Typically on its own page
Reference Page • A list of every source that you use in your paper • Reference page allows your reader to look up and retrieve any source you used • EVERY source cited in the paper MUST be in the reference page • MUST be in alphabetical order • HANGING INDENTS!
Book with one author • Author’s last name, Author’s first initial. (year). Title. Place of Publication: Publisher, Page number(s). • Example: • Wilson, E. O. (1994). Naturalist. Washington: Island Press, 66-79. • REMEMBER HANGING INDENT!
Book with one author group example • Author: Jacob Smith • Year: 2003 • Title: On the nature of the psyche • Publisher: Princeton University Press • Place of publication: Urbana • Page Numbers: 92-97
Answer # 1 • Smith, J. (2003). On the nature of the psyche. Urbana: Princeton University Press, 92-97.
Book with two or more authors • Authors last names, first initials. (year). Title. Place of Publication: Publisher, page numbers. • Example: • Jordan, J. V., Kaplan, A. G., Miller, J. B., Stiver, I. P., & Surrey, J.L. (1991). Women’s growth in connection: Writings from the Stone Center. New York: Guilford Press, p.32. • REMEMBER HANGING INDENT!
Book with two or more authors group example • Authors: Chase Crowning, Amber Trent, Matthew Sane, Alan Steve Ross • Year: 1978 • Title: The handbook of artificial intelligence • Place of Publication: London, England • Publisher: Addison-Wesley • Page numbers: 128,150, 211-234
Answer # 2 • Crowning, C., Trent, A., Sane, M. & Ross, A. S. (1978). The handbook of artificial intelligence. London, England: Addison-Wesley, 128, 150, 211-234.
Article in a scholarly journal • Author’s last name, first initials. (year, month). Title. Journal Title, volume number(issue number), page numbers. • Example: • Kanazawa, S. & Still, M. C. (2000, December). Teaching may be hazardous to your marriage. Evolution and Human Behavior, 2(1), 185-190. • REMEMBER HANGING INDENT!
Article in a scholarly journal group example • Author: Richard Ginat • Year: October 2000 • Title: The Soviet Union and the Syrian Ba’th regime: From hesitation to rapprochement. • Journal Title: Middle Eastern Studies • Volume Number: 36 • Issue Number: 2 • Page Numbers: 150-171
Answer # 3 • Ginat, R. (2000, October). The Soviet Union and the Syrian Ba’th regime: From hesitation to rapprochement. Middle Eastern Studies, 36(2), 150-171.
Article in a magazine • Author’s last name, first initials. (year, month day). Article Title. Magazine Title, volume number, page numbers. • Example: • Levy, S. (2003, April 21). The killer browser. Newsweek, 141, 6-12. • REMEMBER HANGING INDENT!
Article in a magazine group example • Author: Kurt Miller • Year: August 16, 2000 • Article Title: The Victorian Achievement • Magazine Title: Time • Volume number: 13 • Page numbers: 23-31
Answer # 4 • Miller, K. (2000, August 16). The Victorian Achievement, Time, 13, 23-31.
Work in an electronic database • Author’s last name, first initials. (Year). Article title. Journal title, Volume number, page numbers. Retrieved date, from database title: URL • Example: • Goldstein, B.S.C., & Harris, K. C. (2000). Consultant practices in tow heterogeneous Latino schools. The School Psychology Review, 29, 368-377. Retrieved June 4, 2003, from WilsonWeb Education Full Text database: http://www.wilsonwebeducation.org
Work in an electronic database group example • Author: Nathan Alexander • Year: 2006 • Article Title: No nuke blackmail • Journal: Natural History • Volume Number: 12 • Page numbers: 20-25 • Retrieved date: June 12, 2007 • Database title: APA Learning Technologies Journals • URL: www.apa.org/journals/NH/500NH.html
Answer # 5 • Alexander, N. (2006). No nuke blackmail. Natural History, 12, 20-25. Retrieved June 12, 2007, from APA Learning Technologies Journals: www.apa.org/journals/NH/500NH.html
Newspaper article retrieved from database or Web site • Author’s last name, first initials. (Year, Month day). Article title. Newspaper title. Retrieved date, from database title: URL • Example: • Liptak, A. (2003, June 2). Internet battle raises questions about the First Amendment. The New York Times. Retrieved June 4, 2003, from LexisNexis Academic Universe database: http://www.nytimes.com/2003/06/02/national/02INTE.html
Newspaper article retrieved from a database or website group example • Author: Rick McClintock • Year: September 20, 2000 • Article title: Cities, youth, and technology: Toward a pedagogy of autonomy • Newspaper title: National Geographic • Retrieved date: May 30, 2003 • Database title: Columbia University Institute of Education • URL: http://www.ilt.columbia.edu/publications/cities/cyt.html
Answer # 6 • McClintock, R. (2000, September 20). Cities, youth, and technology: Toward a pedagogy of autonomy. National Geographic. Retrieved May 30, 2003, from Columbia University Institute of Education: http://www.ilt.columbia.edu/publications/cities/cyt.html