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FinFETs: From Circuit to Architecture

FinFETs: From Circuit to Architecture

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FinFETs: From Circuit to Architecture

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  1. FinFETs: From Circuit to Architecture Niraj K. Jha Dept. of Electrical Engineering Princeton University Joint work with: Anish Muttreja, Prateek Mishra, Chun-Yi Lee, Ajay Bhoj and Wei Zhang

  2. Talk Outline • Background • Low Power FinFET Circuits • Unusual Logic Styles • Unusual Dual-Vdd/Dual-Vth Circuits • Architectural Impact • Other Ongoing Work • Conclusions

  3. Why Double-gate Transistors ? 10 nm Feature size • DG-FETs can be used to fill this gap • DG-FETs are extensions of CMOS • Manufacturing processes similar to CMOS • Key limitations of CMOS scaling addressed through • Better control of channel from transistor gates • Reduced short-channel effects • Better Ion/Ioff • Improved sub-threshold slope • No discrete dopant fluctuations 32 nm Bulk CMOS DG-FETs Non-Si nano devices Gap

  4. Si Fin What are FinFETs? • Fin-type DG-FET • A FinFET is like a FET, but the channel has been “turned on its edge” and made to stand up

  5. Oxide insulation Back Gate Independent-gate FinFETs • Both the gates of a FET can be independently controlled • Independent control • Requires an extra process step • Leads to a number of interesting analog and digital circuit structures

  6. FinFET Width Quantization • Electrical width of a FinFET with n fins: W = 2*n*h • Channel width in a FinFET is quantized • Width quantization is a design challenge if fine control of transistor drive strength is needed • E.g., in ensuring stability of memory cells FinFET structure Ananthan, ISQED’05

  7. Talk Outline Background Low Power FinFET Circuits Unusual Logic Styles Unusual Dual-Vdd/Dual-Vth Circuits Architectural Impact Other Ongoing Work Conclusions

  8. Motivation: Power Consumption • Traditional view of CMOS power consumption • Active mode: Dynamic power (switching + short circuit + glitching) • Standby mode: Leakage power • Problem: rising active leakage • 40% of total active mode power consumption (70nm bulk CMOS) † †J. Kao, S. Narendra and A. Chandrakasan, “Subthreshold leakage modeling and reduction techniques,” in Proc. ICCAD, 2002.

  9. Logic Styles: NAND Gates IG-mode NAND SG-mode NAND IG-mode pull up pull up bias voltage LP-mode NAND IG/LP-mode NAND LP-mode pull down pull down bias voltage

  10. Comparing Logic Styles †Average leakage current for two-input NAND gate (Vdd = 1.0V)

  11. FinFET Circuit Power Optimization Construct FinFET-based Synopsys technology libraries Extend linear programming based cell selection† for FinFETs Use optimized netlists to compare logic styles at a range of delay constraints 32 nm PTM FinFET models FinFET models (UFDG, PTM) 32 nm PTM inFET models Logic gate designs Logic gate designs Delay/power characterization in SPICE Benchmark Minimum-delay synthesis in Design Compiler SG-mode netlist IG SG Synopsyslibraries Power-optimized mixed-mode netlists IG/LP LP SG+ IG/LP SG+LP Linear programming based cell selection SG+IG †D. Chinnery and K. Keutzer, “Linear programming for sizing, Vdd and Vt assignment,” in Proc. ISLPED, 2005.

  12. Power Consumption of Optimized Circuits Estimated total power consumption for ISCAS’85 benchmarks Vdd = 1.0V, α = 0.1, 32nm FinFETs Available modes • Leakage power savings • 110% a.t. (68.5%) • 120% a.t. (80.3%) • Total power savings • 110% arrival time (a.t.) (34%) • 120% a.t. ( 47.5%)

  13. Talk Outline Background Low Power FinFET Circuits Unusual Logic Styles Unusual Dual-Vdd/Dual-Vth Circuits Architectural Impact Other Ongoing Work Conclusions

  14. Dual-Vdd FinFET Circuits Conventional low- power principle: 1.0V Vdd for critical logic, 0.7V for off-critical paths Our proposal: overdriven gates Overdriven FinFET gates leak a lot less! Overdriven inverter Higher Vth Reverse bias Vgs=+0.08V 1.08V 1V Leakage current Vin

  15. Vth Control with Multiple Vdd’s (TCMS) Symmetric threshold control for P and N VddH VddL TCMS buffer • Using only two Vdd’s saves leakage only in P-type FinFETs, but not in N-type FinFETs • Solution • Use a negative ground voltage (VHss) to symmetrically save leakage in N-type FinFETs VssH VssL

  16. Exploratory Buffer Design Size of high-Vdd inverters kept small to minimize leakage in them Wire capacitances not driven by high-Vdd inverters Output inverter in each buffer overdriven and its size (and switched capacitance) can be reduced VLdd VLdd VHdd VHdd i’ i S1 S1 lopt S2 S2 VLss VLss VHss VHss

  17. Power Savings • Benchmarks are nets extracted from real layouts and scaled to 32nm http://dropzone.tamu.edu/~zhouli/GSRC/fast_buffer_insertion.html

  18. Fin-count Savings Transistor area is measured as the total number of fins required by all buffers TCMS can save 9% in transistor area

  19. TCMS Extension Delay-minimized netlist Power : 283.6uW Area: 538 fins Power-optimized netlist Power : 149.9uW Area: 216 fins

  20. Power Reduction (ISCAS’85 Benchmarks)

  21. Power-minimized vs Delay-minimized Netlists at 130% ATC

  22. Talk Outline Background Low Power FinFET Circuits Unusual Logic Styles Unusual Dual-Vdd/Dual-Vth Circuits Architectural Impact Other Ongoing Work Conclusions

  23. Orion-FinFET • Extends ORION for FinFET-based power simulation for interconnection networks • FinFET power libraries for various temperatures and technologies nodes • Power breakdown of interconnection networks for different FinFET modes • Power comparison for different FinFET modes under different traffic patterns

  24. Router Microarchitecture & Pipeline Stages

  25. Power Simulation Flow

  26. Power Breakdown for SG/LP Modes • 4X4 mesh network: 5 ports/router, 48-flit buffer/port • Flit width = 128 bits • Clock frequency = 1GHz Router power breakdown Network power breakdown

  27. Bulk CMOS vs. LP-mode FinFETs • Bulk CMOS simulation: 32nm predictive technology model • Leakage power of bulk CMOS network 2.68X as compared to an LP-mode FinFET network

  28. Router Leakage Power vs. Temp. • Leakage power of SG-mode router grows much faster with temp. than for LP-mode • Leakage power ratio at 105oC: 7:1

  29. Talk Outline Background Low Power FinFET Circuits Unusual Logic Styles Unusual Dual-Vdd/Dual-Vth Circuits Architectural Impact Other ongoing work Conclusions

  30. FinFET SRAM and Embedded DRAM Design FinE: Two-tier FinFET simulation framework for FinFET circuit design space exploration: Sentaurus TCAD+UFDG SPICE model Quasi Monte-Carlo simulation for process variation analysis Thermal analysis using ThermalScope Yield estimation Variation-tolerant ultra low-leakage FinFET SRAMs at lower technology nodes Gated-diode FinFET embedded DRAMs

  31. Extension of CACTI for FinFETs Selection of any of the FinFET SRAM and embedded DRAM cells Use of any of the FinFET operating modes Scaling of FinFET designs from 32nm to 22nm, 16nm and 10nm technology nodes Accurately modeling the behavior of a wide range of cache configurations

  32. FPGA vs. ASICs • Distributed non-volatile nano RAMs: main storage for reconfiguration bits • Fine-grain reconfiguration (even cycle-by-cycle) and logic folding • More than an order of magnitude increase in logic density and area-delay product • Competitive performance and moderate power consumption • Non-volatility: useful in low power & secure processing • NanoMap to map application to NATURE • Significant area-delay trade-off flexibility CMOS fabrication compatible Nano RAM on-chip storage Run-time reconfiguration NATURE Temporal logic folding Logic density Design flexibility

  33. Conclusions • FinFETs a necessary semiconductor evolution step because of bulk CMOS scaling problems beyond 32nm • Use of the FinFET back gate leads to very interesting design opportunities • Rich diversity of design styles, made possible by independent control of FinFET gates, can be used effectively to reduce total active power consumption • TCMS able to reduce both delay and subthreshold leakage current in a logic circuit simultaneously • Time has arrived to start exploring the architectural trade-offs made possible by switch to FinFETs