Networking Basics Comm 272: Digital Technologies
Why bother networking? Networking Basics • Networking – any method of connecting your PC to another computer system or common device. • LAN, WAN, peer-to-peer • File sharing (MP3, common data), applications, email, printing • Online/LAN gaming
Basic hardware required for networking Networking Basics • Computer system or device with a network card • Network (Ethernet) cable • Wireless (later)
IP Addresses Networking Basics • Internet Protocol Address • Made up of 4 groupings of numbers used to identify computers on a network or the internet. • Only certain groups of IP addresses can talk together, based on how equipment is configured. • IP Address is a unique identifier of a single device (computer, printer, etc) on a network • Can be static or dynamic
What’s a Subnet? Networking Basics • As mentioned, a network is a group of computers configured to communicate with each other. • A subnet allows for multiple groups within a network to be further refined. • A subnet allows for all Lab computers to be separated from Faculty computers, and all Student computers to be separated as well. • So why separate? Security, speed, manageability
What’s a Gateway? Networking Basics • The device that directs a device’s inbound and outbound traffic. • Represented by an IP address. • Can be any of several types of devices, but it must be on the same network as the device in question.
Networking Equipment Networking Basics • Network Card • Network Cable • Hub • Switch • Router • Firewall
Connection and Transfer Speeds Explained Networking Basics • Data speeds measured in kilobits per second (kbps) and megabits per second (mbps) • Modem speeds range from 14.4kbps to 28.8 to 33.6 to 56 • ISDN (older digital dialup method) consists of paired channels of 64kbps lines, allowing for up to 128k transmit and receive. • Cable modem speeds, typically, range from 500k to 2.5mb • DSL speeds vary, based on the type of service desired. However, typical is between 256kbps and 1.5mbps.
Connection and Transfer Speeds Explained Networking Basics • LAN – Local area network speeds are based on the types of equipment used. Wired networks support speeds at 10Mb, 100Mb, and 1000Mb (1gb). • WAN – Wide area networks support whatever speeds are supported by Internet Service Providers, anywhere from dialup at 56K to OC192 at 9.95Gb.
WAN Connection and Transfer Speeds Networking Basics • Dialup – 28.8 to 56k • ISDN – 64 to 128k • Cable – 500k to 2.5mb • DSL – 256k to 1.5mb • T1 – 1.54mb • T3 – 45mb • OC1 – 52mb • OC3 – 155mb • OC48 – 2.4gb • OC192 – 9.95gb
WAN Connection and Transfer Speeds Networking Basics • Dialup – 28.8k to 56k • ISDN – 64k to 128k • Cable – 500k to 2.5mb • DSL – 256k to 1.5mb • T1 – 1.54mb • T3 – 45mb • OC1 – 52mb • OC3 – 155mb • OC48 – 2.4gb • OC192 – 9.95gb
Network Equipment Explained Networking Basics • Network Card – the component that is attached to the computer, and allows a cable to be connected. Without a network card (or NIC, network interface card), a computer cannot be configured for networking, which includes an IP address, subnet, and gateway. • Network Cable – any type of cable (most commonly Ethernet), that connects to a device’s network port on one end, and to a networking device such as a hub or switch on the other end.
Network Equipment Explained Networking Basics • Hub – a hub is a ‘dumb’ device that allows computers to connect to each other based on IP address. • A hub is a network device, but typically does not have an IP address. • A hub doesn’t think about what it receives. It simply forwards data on to all connected devices. • Slower, older technology. • Not good for high-traffic environments • Support speeds of 10mbps or 10/100mbps
Network Equipment Explained Networking Basics • Switch – a switch is a ‘smarter’ device that allows computers to connect to each other based on IP addresses. • A switch is a network device, and oftentimes will have an IP address for management and configuration. • A switch processes everything it receives, and keeps a record of all devices connected to any of its ports. • A switch analyzes incoming traffic (known as packets), and sends that traffic to only the intended recipient device. • Switches are much faster, efficient, secure, and expensive • Support speeds of 10/100/1000mbps
Network Equipment Explained Networking Basics • Router – a router is a device that connects networks to other networks, and allows these different network to talk to each other. • Built on ‘route tables’ of where other networks are connected • Internet is connected by routers • Essentially, connects a LAN to another network
Network Equipment Explained Networking Basics • Firewall – a firewall is a device used for security purposes, to control what types of traffic are allowed into and out of a network. • Identifies services available on the inside of a protected network, and directs that traffic to the appropriate destination. • Directs web traffic to a web server, email traffic to an email server, etc. • Prevents any other access to other devices or services • Windows XP includes a basic personal firewall as part of the NIC configuration
VPN – Virtual Private Network Networking Basics • VPNs allow devices to connect to networks over secure ‘tunnels’ • Allows a computer or network of computers to connect to a remote network as if it were physically connected. • VPNs operate over Internet connections
Home Networking Networking Basics • Home networking is based on the same principles • A computer has an IP address and connects to a hub or switch • The hub or switch connects to a router • The router is connected to the Internet connection • Allows multiple computers to access each other, as well as share the same internet connection • Some home-networking routers have switch and firewall technology built in, for ease of setup, configuration, and use. • Very easy to configure, and most ISPs now support use of home networking.
Wireless Networking Networking Basics • Built on the same principles of ‘wired’ networks, but the equipment used is different. • Wireless Routers, Access Points, and Wireless Network Cards • Protocol used is 802.11a/b/g – each has different properties
Wireless Networking Networking Basics • 802.11b details – • Most popular, cheapest • Up to 11Mbps transfer speed • Range of between 100 and 150 feet, assuming no obstacles • Public Hotspots (ie, Starbucks, etc) operate on 802.11b
Wireless Networking Networking Basics • 802.11a details – • Relatively new technology • Up to 54Mbps transfer speed • More costly • Shorter range, between 25-75 feet • No public hotspots at this time • Not compatible with other wireless protocols
Wireless Networking Networking Basics • 802.11g details – • Growing popularity, fairly inexpensive • Newest home wireless networking technology • Up to 54Mbps transfer speed • Range of between 100 and 150 feet • Compatible with 802.11b access points at 11Mbps speed
Wireless Networking Networking Basics • Different configuration requirements include Network name (SSID), Network Key, and WEP (if used) for security and access control. • http://www.linksys.com – for more info on wireless and home networking devices and options.
Other Thoughts… Networking Basics • The Internet is really the interconnection of many individual networks • When you connect to a website, you’re connecting to a network in a different location.
Other Thoughts… DNS Networking Basics • DNS – Domain Name Service associates an Internet domain name with an IP address. • You can connect to a website by a name (ie. www.vanguard.edu) or by an IP address (ie. http://22.214.171.124) • Email works the same way. Send an email to Brandon@vanguard.edu rather than Brandon@126.96.36.199 • What if I change networks?
Other Thoughts… DNS Networking Basics • Wait! Why are those numbers different when they’re both vanguard.edu? • Because they’re set up to be different servers: www and mail. If they were the same server, they’d both be the same IP address. • www.vanguard.edu = 188.8.131.52 • mail.vanguard.edu = 184.108.40.206 • Domain name is a ‘friendly’, easy way to access a website.
Other Thoughts… Network Authentication Networking Basics • Network Access and Authentication • Networks are groups of computers with access to shared, common resources. • These networks can operate in a peer-to-peer capacity using workgroups, or a Domain model for enhanced resource security and access control.
Other Thoughts… Network Authentication Networking Basics • Workgroup connections are based on local PC security configurations. • If you want access to my music, I need to give you a password to get into the folder where I keep them.
Other Thoughts… Network Authentication Networking Basics • A Domain is a group of computers and users with access to common shared resources, also a part of the domain, where access security is managed from a common location, a Domain Controller. • To get access to a domain resource, first you need a domain account. Then an administrator will assign your account access to specific resources.
Networking Basics Questions?