1850s 1, 7, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 27, 50, 52 1, 3 The Road to the Civil War
Compromise of 1850 • Statehood for CA caused aNorth/South crisis • Stephen Douglas, Henry Clay and Daniel Webster fight for compromise. • Provision for a new Fugitive Slave Law • Slave trade in the District of Columbia • Admission of California into the Union as a free state • Future of slavery in the Mexican Cession territories- Popular Sovereignty
Popular Sovereignty • The settlers in a given territory have the sole right to decide (vote) whether or not slavery will be permitted there. • Popular sovereignty was invoked in • the Compromise of 1850 • Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854). • The tragic events in “Bleeding Kansas” exposed the doctrine's shortcomings
Uncle Tom’s Cabin • Harriet Beecher Stowe’s novel which brought home the evils of slavery to many in the North • Jumpstarted abolitionist movement
Kansas-Nebraska act of 1854 • Stephen Douglas desires a Northern route for a railway and proposes K-N Act • The question of slavery decided by "popular sovereignty • The Nebraska Territory was to be divided into two units — Kansas and Nebraska • Since Kansas is next to slave Missouri, it was thought the south would agree to the terms • Reopened the issue of slavery in a territory North of 36, 30 • The effect of this proposal was to repeal the Missouri Compromise
Bleeding Kansas • Horace Greeley description • the violent hostilities between pro and antislavery forces starting with 1855 election. • The Raid on Lawrence, Kansas. 1856, by proslavery men. • The Pottawatomie Creek Massacre • retaliation for the Lawrence raid • John Brown hacked to death pro-slavery men • Further divide the Democratic Party, up to 300 deaths in Kansas- Pierce unable to respond.
Republican Party • Formed as opposition to the further expansion of slavery into the territories • Spontaneous outpouring of anger following passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act • Northern Whigs united in their opposition to the Kansas-Nebraska Act
Republican Party • The Free-Soil Party • The Know-Nothing movement • Northern Democrats who deserted their Southern cousins over the slavery issue
Dred Scott v. Sanford 1857 • A slave taken from Missouri to Illinois, a free state. Scott sues for his freedom. • Roger Taney, the Supreme Court Chief Justice stated that Black people were not citizens of the United States. • He removed restrictions against the spread of slavery into the Western Territories
Dred Scott v. Sanford • A slave was the property of the slave owner • Congress, under the Fifth Amendment, lacked the authority to deprive citizens of their property • ruling that served to wipe out the slavery provisions of the Missouri Compromise.
John Brown’s Attack on Harper’s Ferry, October 1859 • Brown, A radical abolitionist wanted to start a slave rebellion in Virginia. He attacked Harper’s Ferry, VA • The impact of John Brown's raid was felt in both the North and the South. • In the North, Brown became a martyr in the eyes of the abolitionist minority. • Denounced by many Northern moderates
John Brown’s Attack on Harper’s Ferry • Slave owners were increasingly convinced that the North was preparing for a widespread armed attack. • Others in the South became terrified at the prospect of a general slave insurrection; • these fears led to tightening of slave laws throughout the South.
Lincoln Douglas Debates of 1858 • Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas debate in an Illinois Senatorial election • The main topic is the legality of slavery in the territories • Douglas supports popular sovereignty and wins the election
Lincoln Douglas Debates • Lincoln asks Douglas…” Can a territory vote down slavery despite the Dred Scott Decision” • Douglas responds “Territories can refuse to pass laws that protect slavery” This Freeport Doctrine Divides the Democratic Party North/South. • Douglas wins the election…But Lincoln becomes President
Abraham Lincoln 1858 • “A House divided cannot stand. I believe this governmnt cannot endure; permanently half slave and half free” • How does this statement reflect the Freeport Doctrine?
Election of 1860 • Lincoln’s position on slavery • Slavery should not be allowed to expand into the territories • The republicans won control of the presidency but not congress • No candidate received a majority of the popular vote • The popular and electoral votes were divided among four candidates • A major consequence of the election was that several southern states seceded from the union.