Class Project • Pair up with someone. Next, identify two purchase situations, one high-involvement (e.g., new running shoes, clothes, cars) and one low-involvement (e.g., fast food, ink pens, soft drinks), which the person has some experience with. • Elicit the decision criteria that person would use (or used) in buying a brand in the particular product categories you identified earlier. • Begin the interview by stating... "Assume that you are in the market for _________. What factors do you consider when you are deciding what brand of _______ to buy for yourself?” • Then ask... "What two factors are most important to you in making your decision?“ • Then, for each of these two factors, "Why is ________ important to you?" Or, "What does ________ give you?" • Continue this process for each factor until your partner cannot go on. • Swap roles and repeat the process.
Motivation and Personality • Motivation: • Personality:
Motivation and Personality • Basic Issue: Why do consumers behave the way they do? What are consumers trying to accomplish through the purchasing process? • Why does a person pay for water when it is free? Once they decide to pay for it, why pay a premium for Perrier or Evian? • Why do some people pay $5000 or more for a watch when a $19 Timex works just fine? • Must understand Goals to understand behaviors.
Goals • Consumer have many different sorts of goals • Consumers goals are not always obvious • Different groups (cultures, segments) may have: • Goals have both direction and intensity
Needs-based View of Motivation: Maslow’s Hierarchy 5.Self-actualization: This involves the desire for self- fulfillment, to become all that one is capable of becoming. 4.Esteem: Desires for status, superiority, self-respect, and prestige are examples of esteem needs. These needs relate to the individual’s feelings of usefulness and accomplishment. 3.Belongingness: Belongingness motives are reflected in a desire for love, friendship, affiliation, and group acceptance. 2.Safety: Feeling physical safety and security, stability, familiar surroundings, and so forth are manifestations of safety needs. They are aroused after physiological motives are minimally satisfied, and before other motives. 1.Physiological: Food, water, sleep, and to a limited extent, sex, are physiological motives. Unless they are minimally satisfied, other motives are not activated. Advanced Basic
Common Motives and Associated Marketing Behaviors • Need for Consistency (use information from credible sources) • Need to Categorize (price lining, odd-pricing) • Need for Autonomy (custom products, “limited editions”, DIY) • Need for Stimulation (impulse purchases, new and improved) • Need for Tension Reduction (show recreation, leisure time) • Need for Expression (symbolic products, self-concept) • Need for Ego Defense and reinforcement (conspicuous consumption) • Need for Assertion (power, accomplishment, esteem) • Need for Affiliation (altruism, social consciousness, groups)
Developing Strategies Around Consumer Motives • Identify product and purchasing situation • Select most relevant product features and benefits that are consistent with goals.
Personality • All individuals have internal characteristics or traits • Consumer personality will many times impact motives
Brand Personalities • Brands have a set of human characteristics that become associated with that brand. This is an acquired image of the brand. • There are five core dimensions of brand personality, each divided into a set of facets: • Sincerity • Excitement • Competence • Sophistication • Ruggedness
Each facet is measured by a set of traits. The trait measures are taken using a five-point scale (1= not at all descriptive, 5=extremely descriptive) rating the extent to which each trait describes the specific brand of interest. The traits used for each of the facets are: • Down-to-earth (down-to-earth, family-oriented, small-town) • Honest (honest, sincere, real) • Wholesome (wholesome, original) • Cheerful (cheerful, sentimental, friendly) • Daring (daring, trendy, exciting) • Spirited (spirited, cool, young) • Imaginative (imaginative, unique) • Up-to-date (up-to-date, independent, contemporary) • Reliable (reliable, hard working, secure) • Intelligent (intelligent, technical, corporate) • Successful (successful, leader, confident) • Upper class (upper class, glamorous, good looking) • Charming (charming, feminine, smooth) • Outdoorsy (outdoorsy, masculine, Western) • Tough (tough, rugged)
Describe the personality of the following: • Red Bull • Scion • Blockbuster Video • Wal-Mart • Toyota • Tab • Aquafina • Seiko • Texas Instruments • Chico’s