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Chapter 3 Lexicon

Chapter 3 Lexicon

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Chapter 3 Lexicon

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  1. Chapter 3 Lexicon

  2. What is word? • 3.1.1 Three senses of “word” • A physically definable unit 词是自然的有界限的对立单位 Any word may be seen as sound segments or writing letters between two pauses or blanks. 音系上:[it is 'wʌndəful ] 拼写上:It is wonderful

  3. What is word? • 3.1.1 Three senses of “word” • General term & specific term 既是普通术语又是专门术语 Write-writes-wrote-writing-written 5 words (specific term) 1 word (general term)

  4. What is word? • 3.1.1 Three senses of “word” • A grammatical unit 语法单位 clause complex clause phrase/ word group word morpheme

  5. What is word? • 3.1.2 Identification of words 1.Stability稳定性 Words are the most stable of all linguistic units, in respect of their internal structure. chairman for example. If the morphemes are rearranged as * manchair, it is an unacceptable word in English. John is a clever boy. A clever boy John is.

  6. What is word? • 2. Relative uninterruptibility相对连续性 disappointment: dis + appoint + ment. 词的各个成分之间不可介入新的成分,也不可有停顿,但句子不同: (Even) Paul (even) didn’t (even) love (even) Jane (even).

  7. What is word? • 3. A minimum free form 最小的自由形式 Leonard Bloomfield. sentence as “the maximum free form” and word “the minimum free form.” “Help!”

  8. What is word? • 3.1.3 Classification of words 1. Variable and invariable words No inflective changes: Since, when, seldom Have inflective changes: follow- follows- following- followed

  9. What is word? • 3.1.3 Classification of words 1. Variable and invariable words可变化词和非变化词 • In variable words, one can find ordered and regular series of grammatically different word form; on the other hand, part of the word remains relatively constant. E.g. follow – follows – following – followed. • Invariable words refer to those words such as since, when, seldom, through, hello, etc. They have no inflective endings.

  10. What is word? • 3.1.3 Classification of words 2. Grammatical words and lexical words语法词和词汇词 • Grammatical words, ( function words), express grammatical meanings, such as, conjunctions, prepositions, articles, and pronouns. • Lexical words, ( content words), have lexical meanings, i.e. those which refer to substance, action and quality, such as nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs.

  11. What is word? • 3.1.3 Classification of words • Closed-class words and open-class words 封闭类词和开放类词 • Closed-class word: whose membership is fixed or limited. New members are not regularly added. Therefore, pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions, articles, etc. are all closed items. • Open-class word: A word that belongs to the open-class is one whose membership is in principle infinite or unlimited. Nouns, verbs, adjectives and many adverbs are all open-class items.

  12. What is word? 4.Word class (nine word classes: 名词、代词、形容词、动词、副词、介词、连词、感叹词、冠词) Here are some of the categories newly introduced into linguistic analysis. (1) Particles 助词 • Auxiliaries 助动词 • Pro-forms 代词形式 (4) Determiners 限定词

  13. Particles 助词: 动词不定式标志to;否定标志not; 短语动词的从属单位get by • Auxiliaries 助动词: can, will • Pro-forms 代词形式: 不仅代名词,还可代adj. v. adv. 前位all, both • Determiners 限定词 中位this , that, their 后位 next, last Predeterminers + central determiners + postdeterminers. 例:All their trouble

  14. 3.2 The formation of word 3.2.1 Morpheme and morphology What is morpheme? What is morphology?

  15. Definition of morpheme • The most basic element of meaning is traditionally called morpheme. • The smallest meaningful element of language that cannot be reduced to smaller elements. (Bussmann 1996: 313)

  16. Chairman : chair + man Boys: boy + s Checking: check + ing Endless: end+ less Purify: pur(e) + ify

  17. 3.2 The formation of word • Morphology: the study of the internal structure of words, and the rules by which words are formed. • purify: pur(e) + ify Amplify, simplify, electrify

  18. 3.2 The formation of word 3.2.2 Types of morphemes 1. Free morpheme and bound morpheme 不能独立出现,必须跟至少一个其他的语素组合:dogs, dislike 能够独立出现、独立构词:dog, nation, close, babysit

  19. 3.2 The formation of word 3.2.2 Types of morphemes Free morpheme and bound morpheme • Free morphemes: Those which may occur alone, that is, those which may constitute words by themselves. • Bound morphemes: Those which must appear with at least another morpheme.

  20. Types of morphemes • Free morpheme: Morphemes that can constitute words by themselves. • Bound morpheme: Morphemes that cannot occur “unattached”, but always as parts of words.

  21. 3.2 The formation of word • Root, affix and stem • A root is the base form of a word that cannot further be analyzed without destroying its meaning. • It is the part of the word that is left when all the affixes are removed. • 词根是构成词的基础成分,不能再做进一步分析。

  22. 思考: • 词根一定是自由语素吗? • Root = Free morpheme?

  23. A root may also be free or/ and bound. 词根既可以是自由语素,也可以是黏着语素。 • Roots may be • free:those that can stand by themselves, egblack+board; nation+-al; blackboard这个词来说,它的两个词根都是自由词根 bound:those that cannot stand by themselves, • -ceive: receive, perceive(感觉理解), conceive(构思) • -mit: permit, remit(宽恕), commit(犯罪), submit(服从) A few English roots may have both free and bound variants: sleep, slept, child, children

  24. A few English roots may have both free and bound variants. • the word sleep is a free root morpheme, whereas slep- in the past tense form slept cannot exist by itself, and therefore bound. • sleep和child都是自由词根语素,然而sleep的过去分词形式slept中的slep-和child的复数形式children中的child-都不能独自存在,因此是粘附的。

  25. 3.2 The formation of word • Root, affix and stem • An affix is the collective term for the type of morpheme that can be used only when added to another morpheme. • 词缀是只能附着于另一个语素(词根或词干) 上的一类语素的总称。

  26. Prefix: mini- para- in- un- dis- • Suffix: -ise, -ism, -tion, -ness • Infix: 英语中很少见

  27. Stem:a morpheme or combination of morphemes to which an inflectional affix may be added, eg friend+-s; write+-ing, possibility+-es. It can be equivalent to a root, or a root and a derivational affix. 它相当于词根或词根加派生词缀。 Inflection: grammatical endings, eg plural, tense, comparative, etc. Derivation: combination of a base and an affix to form a new word, eg friend+-ly > friendly.

  28. friends中的friend-,friendships中的friendship-都是词干。friend-表明词干可能相当于词根,而friendship-表明词干可以包含词根和派生词缀。 • What’s the difference between the root and the stem?

  29. Inflectional affix and derivational affix • 屈折词缀只表达一定的语法范畴,是词的语法功能的标记;词加上屈折词缀,只是起了词形变化,或称屈折变化(inflection)。 •     英语中绝大多数词缀都是"派生词缀"(derivational affix)。派生词缀有一定的语义,也常能决定单词的词性。如-ish,加在名词book(书)的后面,构成形容词bookish,表示"书上的、像书一样的、书生气的"等意思。

  30. Derivational and inflectional morphemes • 1. Derivational morpheme: Bound morpheme which change the category or grammatical class of words. • 2. Inflectional morphemes: Bound morphemes which are for the most part purely grammatical markers, signifying such concepts as tense, number, case and so on.

  31. Inflection is the manifestation of grammatical relationships through the addition of inflectional affixes, such as number, person, finiteness, aspect and case, which do not change the grammatical class of the stems to which they are attached.

  32. The distinction between inflectional affixes and derivational affixes is sometimes known as a distinction between inflectional morphemes and derivational morphemes. We can tell the difference between them with the following ways:

  33. The distinction between inflectional affixes and derivational affixes • (1) Inflectional affixes very often add a minute or delicate grammatical meaning to the stem. E.g. toys, walks, John’s, etc. Therefore, they serve to produce different forms of a single word. In contrast, derivational affixes often change the lexical meaning. E.g. cite, citation, etc.

  34. The distinction between inflectional affixes and derivational affixes • (2) Inflectional affixes don’t change the word class of the word they attach to, such as flower, flowers,whereas derivational affixes might or might not, such as the relation between small and smallness for the former, and that between brother and brotherhood for the latter.

  35. (3) Inflectional affixes are often conditioned by non-semantic linguistic factors outside the word they attach to but within the phrase or sentence. 是否使用屈折词缀取决于短语或句子内部的其他成分。 “The boy likes to navigate on the internet.” 而派生词缀的使用更多的是根据简单的意义差别。如:选择使用clever还是cleverness, 取决于我们是要谈论聪明的性质还是聪明的状态。

  36. (4) In English, inflectional affixes are mostly suffixes, which are always word final. E.g. drums, walks, etc. But derivational affixes can be prefixes or suffixes. E.g. depart, teacher, etc.

  37. 3.2 The formation of word • Root, affix and stem • A stem is any morpheme or combination of morphemes to which an inflectional affix can be added. • 词干是指能够附着上屈折词缀的语素或语素组合。 • E.g. friend- in friends and friendship- in friendships are both stems. The former shows that a stem can be equivalent to a root, whereas the latter shows that a stem may contain a root and a derivational affix.

  38. E.g. friend- in friends and friendship- in friendships are both stems. The former shows that a stem can be equivalent to a root, whereas the latter shows that a stem may contain a root and a derivational affix.

  39. 3.2.3 Inflection and word formation • 1. Inflection • Inflection is the manifestation of grammatical relationships through the addition of inflectional affixes, such as number, person, finiteness, aspect and case, which do not change the grammatical class of the stems to which they are attached.

  40. Number : • table—tables • apple—apples • car--cars

  41. Person, finiteness and aspect 人称、限定性、体 • talk—talks—talking—talked • open—opens—opening—opened

  42. Case 格 • Boy—boy’s • John—John’s

  43. 3.2.3 Inflection and word formation • 2. Word formation • Word formation refers to the process of how words are formed. It can be further sub-classified into the compositional type (compound) and derivational type (derivation).

  44. (1) Compound • Compounds refer to those words that consist of more than one lexical morpheme, or the way to join two separate words to produce a single form, such as ice-cream, sunrise, paper bag, railway, rest-room, simple-minded, wedding-ring, etc.

  45. (1) Compound • In compounds, the lexical morphemes can be of different word classes. • day + break daybreak (N+V) • play+ boy playboy (V+N) • Page 65

  46. Compounds can be further divided into : endocentric [,endəu’sentric]向心结构 exocentric [,eksəu’sentrik] 离心结构

  47. (2) Derivation • Derivation shows the relation between roots and affixes. In contrast with inflections, derivations can make the word class of the original word either changed or unchanged. • 派生表明的是词根与词缀之间的关系。

  48. 前缀以否定前缀(negative prefixes)un-, in-, im-, il-, ir-, non-, dis-, mis-, mal-等为主,使延伸出来的派生词变成反义词。

  49. Ⅰ名词派生词 • Balance→imbalance;pleasure→displeasure; management→ mismanagement;efficiency→inefficiency;concern→unconcern ;literacy→illiteracy;resolution→irresolution; interference→noninterference;nutrition→malnutrition.

  50. Ⅱ形容词派生词 • Accurate→inaccurate;patient→impatient. regular→ irregular;legal→illegal;native→non-native; • orderly→ disorderly;common→uncommon.