East Meets West The Crusades
Causes: Adventure • After Christianization of the Vikings, Slavs, and Magyars there was an entire class of warriors who now had very little to do but fight amongst themselves and terrorize the peasant population. • A plea for help from the Byzantine Emperor Alexius I in opposing Muslim attacks thus appealed to their sense of adventure.
Causes: Religious Piety Intense Religious Piety • Due in part to the Investiture Controversy (a significant conflict between secular and religious powers over the issue of who would control appointments of church officials). • People became personally engaged in the dramatic religious controversy • The Results: • Intense Christian piety • Public interest in religious affairs • Popular support for the First Crusade • The religious vitality of the 12th century Emperor Henry IV at the Feet of Pope Gregory VII
Causes: Papal Politics Roman-Byzantine Rivalry • Cluniac (Benedictine) reformcaused the church in the West to be more attentive to business and provided impetus to attempt to reassert control • The Great Schism, 1064, wasa division of Christianity into Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic. The primary cause wasa dispute over papal authority.
Causes: European Expansionism • In the Battle of Hastings in 1066, William the Conqueror (from Normandy) defeated England and brought unity and strength to that country. • After the capture of Toledo from the Moslems in 1087, it became the residence of the kings of Castile and the ecclesiastical center of the whole of Spain • The Normans captured Sicily from the Moslems in 1091 and paved the way for the unification of that country.
Causes: Muslim Advances Events in Moslem World • The Battle of Manzikert, 1071, resulted in the defeat of the Byzantine Empire and the capture of the Emperor by the Seljuk Turks (muslims). • The Byzantines also lost Anatolia to the Turks. • The Turks disrupted pilgrim traffic.
Christianization of the Vikings, Slavs, and Magyarsc. 1000 Cluniac Reformc. 1024 InvestitureControversy1075+ Constantinople Rome Capture of Toledo from Muslims 1087 Battle of Manzikert 1071 Capture of Sicily from Muslims1099 InvestitureControversy1075+ InvestitureControversy1075+ Great Schism1064 Europe1000-1100 Adventure Papal Politics Religious Piety Battle of Hastings1066 Expansionism Muslim Advances Pilgrimages
Call for a Crusade • Pope Urban II called for a Crusade in 1095 • Objectives • Drive Turks from Anatolia • Obligate the Byzantines • Provide occasion for healing Great Schism on Rome's terms • Capture Holy Land
Major Events of Crusades • First Crusade 1097-1098 • Achieved all major objectivesin Holy Land • Turkish threat blunted, thoughnot eliminated • Area not strategic to Moslems, could have been held indefinitely with a little skill. • Initial gains lost through diplomatic bungling. • Crusaders attempted to destabilize neighbors
Major Events of Crusades • Second Crusade, 1147-1148 • Military failure, discredits Crusaders as military threat • Third Crusade, 1189-1191 • Well-known in literature (Robin Hood) • Involved Richard I of England, Phillip II of France, Frederick I of Holy Roman Empire • Saladin on Moslem side.
Major Events of Crusades • Fourth Crusade, 1199-1204 • Western-Greek relations always strained, mutual contempt. • To finance crusade, Crusaders worked for Venetians • Crusaders sacked Constantinople, 1204 • Chance to heal Great Schism utterly lost. • In 1453, when attacked by Turks, Byzantines preferred surrender to asking Rome for aid.
Major Events of Crusades • Fifth Crusade, 1218-1219 • Captured Damietta, swapped for Jerusalem • Moslems agreed • Crusaders tried to conquer Egypt, were routed • Sixth Crusade, 1229 • Frederick II of Germany did little fighting and a lot of negotiation • Treaty gave the Crusaders Jerusalem and all the other holy cities and a truce of ten years • He was widely condemned for conducting the Crusade by negotiating rather than fighting.
Major Events of Crusades • Seventh Crusade, 1248-1254 • Led by Louis IX of France • Nearly an exact repeat of the Fifth Crusade • Eighth Crusade, 1270 • Led by Louis IX of France • Louis’ brother, Charles of Anjou, king of Sicily, had strategic plans of his own and diverted the expedition to Tunisia, where Louis died. • The last Crusader cities on the mainland of Palestine fell in 1291 • One small island stronghold lasted until 1303.
Where else in military history can we find a war that was won four times and still lost?
The Crusades Died Out • Lack of interest, rising European prosperity • Repeated military defeats • Discredited by "crusades" against Christians (e.g., Albigensians)
Effects of Crusades • Fatal weakening of Byzantine Empire • Vast increase in cultural horizons for many Europeans. • Stimulated Mediterranean trade. • Need to transfer large sums of money for troops and supplies led to development of banking techniques. • Rise of heraldic emblems, coats of arms • Romantic and imaginative literature.
Effects of Crusades • Knowledge introduced to Europe • Heavy stone masonry, construction of castles and stone churches. • Siege technology, tunneling, sapping. • Moslem minarets adopted as church spires • Weakening of nobility, rise of merchant classes • Enrichment was primarily from East to West--Europe had little to give in return.
References • Dutch, Steven I. 13 Dec. 2001. University of Wisconsin-Green Bay. 22 Sept. 2005<http://www.uwgb.edu/dutchs/WestTechPPT/Crusades.ppt>. • The Crusades." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. 23 Sept. 2005. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. 24 Sept. 2005<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crusades#Historical_background>. • The Church and the Crusades." Medieval Crusades. 24 Sept. 2005 http://www.medievalcrusades.com>.