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“The Times they are a-changin’.” Bob Dylan

“The Times they are a-changin’.” Bob Dylan

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“The Times they are a-changin’.” Bob Dylan

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  1. “The Times they are a-changin’.” Bob Dylan 1960s: An Era of Social Change Vickie Looser

  2. ’60s: An Era of Social Change • Latinos fight for change • Native Americans struggle for equality • African-Americans lead the civil rights movement • Women’s movement pushes for equality • Rebellious youth embrace counterculture • Counterculture impacts fashion, fine arts, and social attitudes

  3. Latinos Fight for Change • Large, diverse group of Spanish-speaking Americans • 9 million by 1970 • Encounter ethnic prejudice and discrimination in jobs and housing • Live in segregated barrios or neighborhoods. • 50% higher rate of poverty and joblessness than whites images/latinos.JPG

  4. Latinos demand Respect • Cesar Chavez led United Farm Workers Movement to improve pay and working conditions for farm workers • “Brown power” movements increase cultural pride • Bilingual Education of 1968 funds bilingual and cultural heritage programs • Young Mexicans adopt Chicano as symbol of ethnic pride • Organize politically civilrights/a0423003.htm cecchronsp.htm

  5. Native Americans Unite • Poorest Americans • Highest unemployment rate • Health Problems: tuberculosis, alcoholism • Termination policies to assimilate fail in 1950s • Protesters demand reform html/npeople.html

  6. African-Americans fight Jim Crow System • Leaders in the Civil Rights Movement • 1950s: Fight against segregation • Brown v. Topeka Board of Education orders segregation in public schools, no longer “separate but equal” doctrine • Resistance in Southern states: de jure segregation • 1957 crisis in Little Rock to oppose integration of Central High School

  7. Civil Rights 1950s • 1954: Montgomery Bus Boycott Begun by Rosa Parks • Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. helped to lead the Montgomery movement

  8. Civil Rights 1960s • 1960 Sit-ins at segregated lunch counters • Freedom riders attacked in Anniston, Alabama • Integration of college campuses • Birmingham’s Children’s Crusades for racial justice • President Kennedy uses federal troops to force desegregation of U of AL • Medgar Evars killed in Mississippi

  9. “I Have a Dream” • 1963 March on Washington • King’s speech appealed for peace and racial harmony • President Kennedy assassinated, President Johnson endorsed Civil Rights Bill • Civil Rights Act of 1964 prevented discrimination to all areas of public accommodations

  10. Freedom Summer, 1964 • SNCC organized voter registration project • Selma-to-Montgomery march to promote voting rights movement • Voting Rights Act of 1965 eliminated the literacy test

  11. Changes in the Civil Rights Movement • Northern de facto segregation resulted in urban violence • Race riots in Harlem, Watts • Demands for economic equality of opportunity in jobs, housing, and education • LBJ promotes his War on Poverty to establish his Great Society Program

  12. New Voices in Civil Rights • Malcolm X and Black Muslims promote Black Pride • “Ballots or bullets” became new slogan • Broke with Nation of Islam and Elijah Muhammad • Preached black superiority and separation from whites • Assassinated in 1965

  13. Radicalism in Civil Rights • Black Panthers organized in 1966 to fight police brutality • Advocated taking control of communities in which Blacks lived, full employment, and decent housing • Adopted Mao Zedong’s slogan “Power flows out of the barrel of a gun” • Feared by whites who objected to revolutionary rhetoric

  14. 1968: Turning Point in Civil Rights • Martin Luther King, Jr. assassinated in Memphis in April • Urban rioting in major cities • Kerner Commission stated major cause of urban rioting to be white racism • Civil Rights Act of 1968 banned discrimination in housing

  15. Civil Rights Gains by 1970 • 24th Amendment banned Poll Tax • African-Americans expressed greater pride in their racial identity • More African Americans in movies, television shows, and commercials • 2/3 of African Americans registered to vote • Increase in African Americans holding elected office • Affirmative action programs promoted hiring of groups who suffered discrimination in the past

  16. Women Fight for Equality • Feminism promoted economic, political, and social equality with men • 1961 Presidential Commission reported wage discrimination in the workplace • Women inspired by civil rights and antiwar movements • Women shared in “consciousness-raising” sessions

  17. The Feminine Mystique • Betty Friedan’s book exposed discontent of U. S. women • Women’s Liberation movement achieved political and social gains for women

  18. NOW opposed sex discrimination • Urged creation of more child care facilities and improved educational opportunities for women • Pressured EEOC to enforce ban on gender discrimination in hiring • Staged protest at Miss America pageant • Gloria Steinem founded National Women’s Political Caucus to encourage women to seek political office • 1972 Ban on gender discrimination in higher education

  19. Roe v. Wade, 1973 • Supreme Court ruled women had the right to choose an abortion in first three months of pregnancy • Americans divided over abortion issue

  20. Equal Rights Amendment • Guaranteed “equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex.” • Sparked fierce opposition • Phyllis Schlafly led Stop-ERA campaign • Ratified by 35 states, but needed 38 • Failed in ratification movement that ended in 1982

  21. Gains by Women’s Movement • Opened up new opportunities for American women • Created new opportunities in education, employment, and politics • Women viewed their jobs as lifetime careers • “Glass ceiling” recognized as an invisible, but real resistance to promoting women into top positions

  22. “Tune in, turn on, drop out.”—Timothy Leary • Youth embrace Counterculture • Hippies criticize American materialism, technology, and war • Many chose to protest by leaving society to live in communes

  23. Age of Aquarius • Desire an idyllic setting of peace, love and harmony • Embrace rock ‘n’ roll music, outrageous clothes, and liberal use of drugs • Experiment with marijuana and LSD (acid)

  24. “Do your own thing.” • Hippies rejected the establishment by wearing outrageous clothes • Long hair and beards for men • Ragged jeans, tie-dyed T-shirts, and surplus military garments • Beads and Native American ornaments

  25. Hippies adopt communal lifestlyes • Reject conventional home life • Adopt group living arrangements • Live together in cooperation and harmony • Escape to rural communes or crowd together in urban “crash pads” • Hippie Capital—Haight-Ashbury district in San Francisco

  26. Lifestyle turns to violence and disillusioment • Youths embrace new and different religious experiences • Zen Buddhism offered enlightenment though meditation, self-contemplaation, and intuition • Spiritual guru Maharishi Mahesh Yogi of India influenced many to embrace transcendental meditation • Communities change to violence and disillusionment • Charles Manson and his “family” kill 5 in Hollywood • Widespread use of drugs led to overdoses, drug dependence, and mental and physical breakdowns • Rock singer Janis Joplin and guitarist Jimi Hendrix died of drug overdoses • Hippies ran out of resources to support themselves and turn to panhandling, welfare, and food stamps

  27. A Changing Culture • Andy Warhol led rise of pop art • Bright silk-screen portraits of soup cans, Marilyn Monroe and other icons of mass culture • New art built around popular culture

  28. New Fashions • Longer hair, beards, mustaches for men • Colorful and comfortable clothes for women • Blue jeans become wardrobe staple for everyone

  29. British Invasion by the Beatles • Rock ‘n’ roll developed from African-American rhythm and blues music • Captivated the teenagers of the 1950s but evolved • Led by the popularity of The Beatles • Inspired numerous other bands

  30. Woodstock Art and Music Fair • August, 1969 in upstate New York • Free music festival for 3 days and nights • 400,000 show up for “Human Be-in” • Jimi Hendrix, Janis Joplin, Joe Cocker, Joan Baez, the Grateful Dead, and Jefferson Airplane appeared on stage

  31. Changing Social Attitudes • Sexual Revolution: view sexual behavior and human relationships more casually • Mass culture openly address former taboo subjects • Divorce rate doubled • Homosexual organizations openly fight for equal rights • Hollywood produces more sexually explicit films results in rating system for movies

  32. Changes spawn conservative backlash • Casual and permissive social behavior condemned by many • Counterculture and antiwar movement perceived as promoting lawlessness and chaos • Conservative backlash helped to elect Richard Nixon

  33. Bibliography • Danzer, Gerald A. et al. The Americans: Reconstruction through the 20th Century. Dallas: McDougal Little, 1999. • Pictures retrieved from

  34. 1960s: An era of change Vickie Looser Summer, 2004