“Endodontic processing temporary tooth in and permanent teeth with unformed root. Endodontic tools and techniques. Sealing Root Channel in temporary and permanent teeth in children.” Lecturer: Dr. KatrinDuda
CLASSIFICATION OF ENDODONTIC INSRUMENTS BASED ON FUNCTION A)EXPLORING - to locate canal orifice and to assist in obtaining patency of root canal B) DEBRIDING - to extirpate pulp and remove debris C) CLEANING AND SHAPING - clean and shape root canals laterally and apically D) OBTURATING - To pack filling material into root canal MODE OF USE A) HAND B) ROTARY
EXAMINING INSTRUMENTS • Instruments used in examination are 1)front surface mouth mirror _ overcomes the problem of associated with double image 2)periodontalprobe 3)explorer 4)cotton forceps
EXPLORING INSTRUMENTSENDODONTIC EXPLORERS: • Long, narrow working ends. • Angle away from shank – easy access. • Locate canal openings. • Explore pulp chambers.
DEBRIDING INSTRUMENTSENDODONTIC EXCAVATOR • Longer offset – better reach • Excise pulp tissue from pulp chamber
BARBED BROACH • Made from soft iron wire • Machined from steel conical blank • And have numerous hooks as part of the blade • Used to remove Intact pulp tissue
REAMERS Manufacturing by grinding Triangular blanks Triangle in cross section Cutting tip Mode of action: Reaming action Rotation and passive withdrawal Less number of flutes compared with k file K file Manufacturing mainly from square blank long their long axis Instruments with tighter spirals. Mode of Action : filing (push and pull ) Watch-winding motion
K-STYLE MODIFICATION K-FLEX: • Forerunner of hybrid instruments. • Hybrid – strength and versatility of K-type + aggressive cutting of H-type. • Cross-section – rhombus or diamond. • Cutting edge – Two acute angles. • Alternating low flutes – obtuse angle – increase debris removal. • Space reservoir – reduced compacting dentinal filing. • Increase flexibility.
Hedstroem Files • Manufactured by grinding a conical steel wire. • Cut in one direction – retraction. • Cross-section – single helix teardrop • Cutting while pulling • Very aggressive • Uses: • Useful for removal of Gutta-percha in re-treatment cases • To remove /retrieve broken instruments
Standardization of Endodontic Instruments Standardization of size Sizing system goes as follow 6,8,10 ,15,20,25,30,35,40,45,50,55,60 60,70,80,90,100,110,120,130,140 Endodontic file sizing system is not arbitrary but it's based on the diameter of the instrument in the handbreadth of the millimeters An instrument size 15 means that the diameter of the instrument at D0= 0.15mm
Engine Driven Instruments • USES • To increase speed and efficiency • According to type of motions they can be classified as • Vibratory instruments • Sonic /ultra sonic • Rotary instruments
Gates – Glidden Drills Size: From 1 to 6 No.. 1 - file # 50 No.. 2 -file # 70 No.3-file # 90 No.4- file # 110 No.5- file # 130 No. 6 - file # 150 15 or 19 mm long
3. Peeso Reamers • Used for canal preparation • Parallel rather than elliptical shape.. • Sizes: • From 1 to 6 • No.. 1 - file # 70 • No.. 2 -file # 90 • No.3-file # 110 • No.4- file # 130 • No.5- file # 150 • No.. 6 - file # 170 • Not as well controlled as G.G. drill • Disadvantages • Are aggressive and might rapidly over prepare the • canal or cause perforations if used incorrectly..
Engine driven Nickel-Titanium instruments • Rotary Instruments
OBTURATING INSTRUMENTS : 1. Lentulo Spirals (paste carriers) Rotated in clock wise direction after being introduced in the canal.. - It is removed from the canal while still rotating.. - Care must be taken as not to extrude material to the apex.. 2. Root canal spreaders: Used for lateral condensation [pointed end] • Hand spreaders ( stiff ) • Finger spreaders (Flexible ) • Standardized.
NiTi spreaders • NiTi finger spreaders • Used in curved canals for good obturation
OBTURATING MATERIAL (CORE MATERIAL) • -GuttaPercha • Silver points • Reslion • Root canal sealers • Zinc oxide eugenol • Calcium hydroxide • Resin sealers
Ultra Sonic Instruments: • Ultrasonic files are attached to the hand piece for canal preparation. • Ultrasonic Root canal diamond tips are used for canal flaring. • Ultrasonic root canal spreaders used for thermo-mechanical condensation of Gutta- percha Other uses of endosonics:: In addition to the use of endosonic files to clean and shape the root canals, they play valuable roles in: 1. Access refinement (canal location and identification) 2. Root canal retreatment (fractured instruments,, silver points ,, or posts) 3. Apical surgery (access to the root ends)
USES • Removal of coronal and root restorative material. • Locating and opening of calcified root canals. • Elimination of root obturation material. • Pulp stone removal. • Removal of broken instruments.
ELECTRONIC APEX LOCATOR It’s a device for root canal length determination. Usually root canal measurements depend on radiographs. But electric devices have been developed so that the apical foramen could be located with the use of an electric current.
Mode of Use A lip clip is attached to the patient’s lip and another electrode is attached to the file. When the apex is reached, a beep is heard and a light illuminates in the device indicating the apex.
Mechanism The Electrical resistance between the mucosa and Periodontal ligament is constant. Electric resistance is felt when a metal instrument reaches the apex and the beep is produced.
Irrigation syringes For introduction of the irrigating solutions inside the root canal. The needle should have many designs that would not allow the irrigating solution to be forced apically.
ABSORBENT PAPER POINTS: Slender cones made of paper or other absorbent material. Uses – drying the canal Conveying medicaments Obtaining canal cultures Available in standardized sizes