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Eleanor Roosevelt

Eleanor Roosevelt

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Eleanor Roosevelt

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  1. Eleanor Roosevelt Most influential first lady Champion of the dispossessed

  2. Frances Perkins First female cabinet member- Secretary of Labor

  3. 1932 Campaign Hoover- said recovery was just around the corner FDR- willing to try bold experimentation

  4. 1932 Election FDR wins in a landslide African Americans shifted from Republican to Democratic

  5. Hoover- early 1933 Wanted FDR to stick to anti-inflationary policies

  6. Glass-Steagall Act Created the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation to insure bank deposits FDR wanted to stimulate inflation with “managed currency”

  7. Demagogues Huey P. Long- promised to give all families $5,000 Father Coughlin- anti-Semitic

  8. National Recovery Act (NRA) Required too much sacrifice on the part of industry, labor and the public

  9. Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) Attempted to reduce farm production

  10. Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 Reversed force assimilation Established tribal self-government

  11. Federal Securities Act and Securities Exchange Commission Provide full disclosure of information Prevent insider trading with the NY Stock Exchange

  12. Tennessee Valley Authority Tennessee Valley was a hundred years behind the rest of the US Improved Navigation, flood control and power from high dams Electrical Power- controversial aspect

  13. Wagner Act of 1935 Gave labor the right to bargain collectively

  14. Supreme Court After packing scandal, supported more New Deal Programs

  15. Civilian Conservation Corps • Worked on natural projects • Men were required to send portion of earnings home

  16. New Deal Provided moderate social reform without radical revolution or reactionary fascism

  17. London Economic Conference Boycotted by FDR- felt it stabilizing national currencies would hurt US recovery

  18. Soviet Union Recognized by FDR- viewed as a possible ally against Germany and Japan

  19. Philippines Became an economic liability for the US

  20. Good Neighbor Policy FDR viewed Latin America as allies to defend the western hemisphere against dictators

  21. FDR’s Foreign-Trade Policy Lowered tariffs to encourage trade

  22. American Attitudes 1930s- most Americans wanted to retreat further into isolationism By mid-1930s- support for a constitutional amendment requiring a popular referendum to declare war

  23. Neutrality Acts Americans would not sail on ships of warring nations US would not sell weapons to any warring nations This style look familiar?

  24. Spanish Civil War US remained neutral Spain became a fascist dictatorship

  25. Jewish Refugees Not fully accepted by America US had a difficult time imagining the Holocaust could be happening

  26. Fall of France US responded by passing a conscription law US gave GB destroyers in exchange for naval bases in the Western hemisphere Basically ended US neutrality US public opinion wanted to support GB, but stay out of fighting

  27. FDR’s Third Term Broke with precedence established by G. Washington Completely constitutional at that point (22nd Amendment passed later) Motivated by belief that US needed his leadership with impending international crisis

  28. Lend-Lease Aid Available to Soviets after German invasion

  29. Pearl Harbor Ended public reluctance to enter WW II

  30. US Entry in WW II Public wanted revenge – no idea what the war was about Retooled industry for war production

  31. Japanese Americans Viewed as possible saboteurs Relocated away from West coast

  32. Synthetic Rubber Government commissioned production to offset loss of access to prewar supply in SE Asia

  33. Women’s Roles in WW II Filled positions left by men heading to war Lead to day-care centers by the government

  34. African Americans Rallied behind the double “V” Moved north and west in large numbers Fought in segregated units Formed CORE

  35. National Debt Increased most during WW II

  36. Pearl Harbor Pearl Harbor Ashley Evitts

  37. America’s Reaction Public opinion had been moving towards support for entering the war during 1941 Considerable opposition remained until the attack. The Pearl Harbor attack immediately stimulated a divided nation into action.

  38. America’s Reaction “We felt, this is our country, and we’re going to fight to defend it.” The day after the attack, President Franklin D. Roosevelt addressed a joint session of United States Congress. Roosevelt signed the declaration of war later the same day.

  39. Overnight, Americans united against Japan

  40. How Did America Prepare for War?

  41. The War Effects on America! Erin Convery, Emily Kenderdine, Pat McTear

  42. Economic Effects • Opened up foreign markets to American Goods • Eliminated isolationist view • German autobahn influenced Eisenhower’s ideas on American Highways • Exposed U.S soldiers to new culture (languages and ideas)

  43. Women’s Roles • 216,000 in non-combat military roles • 6 million out of the house and working in factories • 3,000 day cares were established

  44. Women’s Contributions • Began Volunteering at Red Cross • Encouraged sale of war bonds • Planting Victory Gardens • Nursing in the military

  45. Racial Relations • Japanese internment camps-Japanese forced to live against their will. • Bracero Program-left Mexicans enter us to fill agriculture jobs during the war.

  46. Regional Migration • Native Americans left to go to cities and become Navajo code talkers • 1.6 million African Americans went north which was called the Great Migration • 3 decades after the war, 5 million black tenet farmers went north.

  47. Executive Reorganization Act of 1939 Gave Roosevelt flexibility in creating agencies Resistance from isolationists and lack of expertise hampered the government's efforts However

  48. Bureaucracies The president experimented with creating bureaucracies National Defense Advisory Commission Office of Production Management. BUT... • These proved to be ineffective at managing the complexities of mobilizing the nation

  49. War Production Board Roosevelt established the WPB with real power to control and coordinate the national economy for the war effort. This process was begun by provision of weapons and supplies to the Soviet Union and Great Britain.

  50. War Productions Board got the authority to take materials and prioritize their use force the conversion and expansion of factories ban the production of "nonessential" goods