I. TURKEY A. Physical Geography 1. Part of Turkey lies on a corner of Europe’s Balkan Peninsula. 2. The larger part of Turkey is on the Asian peninsula of Anatolia. 3. The Bosporus and Dardanelles are two straits the divide Turkey. 4. European Turkey is mainly made up of rolling plains and hills.
a. Anatoia has rugged coastlines, broad interior plateaus, and mountains. b. Central Turkey has two mountain ranges, the Taurus Mountains in the south and the Pontic Mountains in the north. 4. Turkey has two climate types. a. Mediterranean climate along the coasts and in the west. b. Steppe climate in the interior of Anatolia.
B. Economic Geography 1. Less than half of Turkey is suitable for farming. a. Wheat, barley, tobacco, hazelnuts, cotton, and citrus fruits around the Sea of Marmara and along the Aegean coast. b. Grains and livestock in the high interior plateaus.
2. The eastern moutons are the least developed part of Turkey. a. Government is building dams in hopes of bringing progress. b. Region contains oil and mineral ores. c. Mohair brings some cash income. 3. A better network of roads and railroads has helped the industrial development of Turkey.
C. Urban Geography 1. Istanbul and Ankara are the leading cities of Turkey. a. Istanbul is the largest city and leading seaport. b. Ankara is the center of some important industries. 2. Industrial development, education, and improved standards of health and housing are helping Turkey become a modern nation.
D. Modern Turkey 1. The roots of modern Turkey reach back to the 1920’s, when a revolution reorganized Turkish society. a. Islam lost its status as the state religion. b. The Roman alphabet replaced the Arabic alphabet. c. Wearing European style clothes was require.
c. Women’s rights are being recognized. 2. Democratic traditions are on the rise. 3. Turkish foreign affairs focus on two main issues. a. Conflict with the Greeks over Cyprus and the resources of the Aegean Sea. b. Cooperation with the new countries of Central Asia.
E. Cyprus 1. Is a rocky, mountainous island located in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. 2. About 3/4 of the island’s population consider themselves Greek. 3. 1/4 think of themselves as Turks. 4. Each community has declared its own republic and has its own government.
4. The Greek part of Cyprus has three times the per capita income as the Turkish part.
II. Israel A. Physical Geography 1. Israel lies along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea on what once was the ancient land of Palestine. 2. Country has many environments. a. Mediterranean along the coast. b. Semiarid around Galilee c. Arid valley of Jordan River and the Dead Sea.
3. The Dead Sea is the lowest point on any continent. B. Agriculture 1. Only about 5% of the people work in Agriculture. 2. Israel’s farms are some of the most productive in the world. 3. Israel exports fruits, vegetables, and cut flowers to Europe. 4. The kibbutz, or collective farm, is an important part of Israeli identity.
5. Israel has one of the world’s most sophisticated water management systems. C. Resources and Industry 1. Israel has no coal, little hydroelectricity, and relatively few minerals. 2. Israel has developed high- technology industries such as the manufacturing of computers, and military weapons.
3. Tourism is another major industry. D. Historical Geography 1. The Jews established their first kingdom more than 3,000 years ago. 2. Over time, the Jews were forced to leave and the region became populated by Arabs 3. In the 19th century, the Zionist movement began to grow.
a. Zionists believed that a Jewish state should be established in Palestine. 4. Millions of Jews were killed during the Holocaust. 5. In 1948, the United Nations suggested that lands west of the Jordan River be divided between Jews and Arabs. a. Arab lands west of the river, called the West Bank were joined to Jordan.
b. Neighboring Arab countries and the Palestinians rejected the establishment of Israel. 6. War erupted in 1948. (Israeli forces defeated the Palestinians and their Arab allies. 7. Wars broke out again in 1956, 1967, and 1973. (Israel won all 3 conflicts.)
8. As a result of the war in 1967, Israel occupied land from Egypt, Syria, and Jordan. a. Egypt’s land was returned in 1982, but the other territories remain a source of conflict. E. Population and Urban Geography 1. Israel is a modern, urban nation. 2. Nearly 85% of its population is Jewish.
3. Tel Aviv is the nation’s largest city. 4. Jerusalem, Israel’s capital is the nation’s culture and political center. F. Issues 1. A crucial question is the fate of the Palestinian people and the territories Israel has occupied since 1967.
2. The Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) is the leader of the Palestinian cause. a. The PLO for many years attacked Israeli citizens, airplanes, and property throughout the world. b. Today it pursues peace agreements with Israel. 3. Israel maintains a large army, the cost of which drains the countries economy.
III. Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan A. Syria 1. Stretches eastward from the Mediterranean coast to the plains of Mesopotamia. 2. Syria is trying to develop modern agriculture. a. In the mountain valleys, citrus fruits and other Mediterranean crops are grown.
b. East of the coastal region, cotton, wheat, and barley are key crops. c. Livestock is also important. d. In the Syrian Desert, Bedouin herders move their flocks with the seasons. 3. Agricultural progress depends on developing water resources. a. The Euphrates River provides water for irrigation.
b. A huge dam on the Euphrates has brought water to thousands of acres of land, and provides electric power for industry. 4. Syria is producing more basic consumer goods. 5. There is a small amount of oil for export, and new oil deposits are being developed in eastern Syria.
6. Damascus is Syria’s capital and a center of Islamic civilization. 7. Syria has been a leader in the Arab opposition to Israel. 8. After the Cold War, Syria has proposed peace negotiations with Israel. 9. Syria seeks aid from the U.S. and Europe.
B. Lebanon 1. Lebanon lies between Syria and Israel, wedged between the Mediterranean coast and the Lebanon Mountains. 2. More than 1/3 of its people are Christians 3. The Lebanese have one of the most modern and Westernized cultures in Southwest Asia.
4. Periodic civil wars have been fought between Christians and Arabs. 5. Foreign countries and the UN have intervened many times in Lebanon to try to resolve the conflicts. 6. Lebanon’s economy lies largely in ruins.
C. Jordan 1. Jordan extends eastward from the Dead Sea and the Jordan River into the Arabian Desert. 2. When Jordan became independent in 1946, fewer than 400,000 people lived east of the Jordan River. a. Israel’s nationhood and the 1967 Arab Israeli conflict caused millions of Palestinians to move into Jordan.
3. Much of Jordan’s food must be imported. 4. Modern Jordan centers around its capital city of Amman. 5. Economic growth and development are interwoven with the Arab-Israeli conflict. a. Jordanian and Israeli leaders signed a peace treaty in 1994.
POSSIBLE ASSIGNMENTS: 1. Turkey, Israel, and Jordan Videodisc Program. 2. Middle East Treaty Negotiation 3. Colleague On The Middle East 4. Thinking Critically (pg. 397) 5. Chapter 33 Enrichment (pg. 15) 6. Learning About Your Geography (pg. 397) 7. Building a Vocab., Recalling and Reviewing. 8. Section Review (pg. 389, 394, 396)