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Problem Statement

Problem Statement

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Problem Statement

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  1. Problem Statement The purpose of this project is to develop a low resistance breath condensate system that can handle the very high ventilations of human exercise. The system must allow for simultaneous exhaled gas and condensate collection during exercise.

  2. Background Information • Cells in lungs produce fluid containing mediators, ions, and cytokines • Analysis of the fluid can be used to diagnose respiratory ailments • Currently, only invasive procedures are used to obtain this fluid • bronchoalveolar lavage • induced sputem

  3. Background Information • Exhaled breath contains small amounts of the respiratory fluid that can be condensed out of breath non-invasively and analyzed • Currently there is a system to do this but only at rest, not while exercising (Jaeger system)

  4. Design Criteria • Minimal resistance during expiration • Visible condensate collection • Must cool condensate without freezing • Minimum sample size 5mL collected in 7 minutes • Compatible with current system • Does not compromise patient safety

  5. System Schematic

  6. Prototype History • Initial Prototype • Copper v-shape tube submerged in ice water bath • Limitations • Cumbersome cooling system • Invariable cooling temperature • Hidden condensate collection • Faulty test tube attachment • Unsophisticated heating section

  7. Current Prototype • Collection Vial Attachment • Plastic cap cemented to PVC • Spout leads condensate into vial • Assembly Method • Epoxy copper fittings • Cemented PVC joints • Caulk sealant

  8. Accomplishments this Semester • Optimized the system • Added a water pump to circulate ice water • Considered using electrically controlled peltier devices for cooling • Designed/redesigned a plunging device to extract all condensate • Built a second identical prototype to use in series with the first so that while one is being plunged the other is in use • Compared test data to theoretical values

  9. Continued Accomplishments • Filed Invention Disclosure • Unfortunately WARF chose not to pursue a patent or licensing for our device • Completed Outreach Presentations

  10. Water Circulator and Plunger

  11. Testing of Prototype

  12. Prototype Characterization • Coolant temperature: 33o F • Air temperature at apex: 69o F • Cooled from exhaled breath at 98.6o F • Resistance added is 16% • Calculated from pressure drop through the system

  13. Theoretical Heat Transfer • Q/t = (kA (Th-Tc)) / d • Q/t is heat transfer per unit of time • k is the thermal conductivity • A is the area • T is the temperature • d is the thickness of the barrier • Our Q/t value is 196kW

  14. Theoretical Resistance • Head Loss • Due to contraction = 1.52 m • Due to 90o bend = 1.42 m • Total minor head loss = 1.94 m • Pressure drop = (h*p*g)/100000 =3.62 mm H2O

  15. Human Subject Protocol • Drafted a research protocol to incorporate device in testing • Study will investigate the correlation between histamine levels and bronchospasm severity in asthma, and the refractory period theory • Visit 1: Baseline testing • Visit 2: • 90% of max for 10-12 minutes • 15 minutes of rest • 90% of max for 10-12 minutes

  16. Thank you! • Dr. Marlowe Eldridge • Hans Haverkamp • Dave Pegelow • Dr. Glennys Mensing • Dr. Naomi Chesler