9.Feudalism is important to the development of constitutional government because it Introduced the idea of government based on contract
10.The Magna Carta includes the important constitutional principle that established Government based on rule of law
12.In colonial America the right to vote most often depended on a person’s gender and Property ownership
July 1776 - Continental Congress issues the Declaration of Independence • State Governments formed • August 1776 – debate over new government resulting in the Articles of Confederation (not ratified until 1781) • 1777 - A of C submitted to the states for ratification
The Second Continental Congress of Revolutionary days was little more than a conference of ambassadors with very limited power.
13.The Declaration of Independence • stated the colonists’ grievances against British rule • Defied the political authority of Britain over the colonies
Most of the first state constitutions provided for supremacy of the Legislative branch
REPUBLIC : • a government in which citizens govern themselves through elected representatives • idea that governments should be based on the consent of the people
The Constitutional principle of popular sovereignty gives power tothe people.
1. According to the natural rights philosophy , the main purpose of government is to : Protect individual rights
2.To say that the rights to life, liberty and property are unalienable means that they : Cannot be given up or taken away.
4. According to the principle of private domain,government May not interfere in certain aspects of citizen’s lives
3. Constitutional government • Tries to limit governmental power but does not always succeed • Can exist in dictatorial governments • May be unwritten
Americans Debate Republicanism • John Dickinson • Civic Virtue • Is best described as putting the common good above your own individual interests • The ultimate guarantor of liberty and justice was the virtue of the people
Responsibilities of citizens in a democratic form of government include Voting, serving on a jury, obeying laws, and serving the community
56. In a constitutional democracy , citizens are expected to Think critically about public issues and participate in public affairs
7. In comparison with the Greek and Roman ideals of civic virtue, Judeo-Christian tradition Stresses the dignity and worth of each individual
Americans Debate Republicanism • Adam Smith • Self Interest
8.One result of the rise of capitalism was that People paid greater attention to their private interests
55.Because many Americans believe that their own opportunity to succeed is related to the well- being of society, they Act for the common good our of enlightened self interest
The Continental Congress DebatesTHREE MAIN QUESTIONS • Supreme Power : Can it be divided ? • Representation by population or state ? • Western Lands: Who gets them ?
Supreme Power: Can it be divided ? • The debate between the supporters and critics of the Articles of Confederation centered how to reconcile states rights with strong national government • Federalism • Federation • Confederation
20. According to the supremacy clause of the Constitution,”supreme law of the land” refers to The Constitution, federal laws, and treaties
32. In our federal system , the scope of the national government's authority grew significantly due to the Supreme Court’s interpretation of the “necessary and proper” clause
Representation by population or state ? • Decided should be determined by equal representation of each state
Western Lands: Who gets them ? • The major issue that delayed ratification of the Articles of Confederation concerned western lands.
The Articles of Confederation were finally approved when all states claiming western lands surrendered them to the national government .
The Land Ordinance of 1785 provided for all of the following: • money from land sales should be used to pay off the national debt • the land should be surveyed before its sale • the territory should be divided into townships six miles square • the sixteenth section should be sold to support education
The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 • established a procedure for governing the Old North west territory. • was important because it set a pattern for the orderly growth of the United States.
The most farsighted provision of the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 was that it prohibited slavery in the Old North west.
17.A major weakness of the Articles of Confederation was a weak central government and its lack of authority to regulate interstate trade.
The economic status of the average American at the end of the Revolutionary War was probably worse than before the war.
Shay's Rebellion was provoked by foreclosures on the mortgages of backcountry farmers.
Under the Articles of Confederation, the relationship between the thirteen states convinced many that a stronger central government was needed.
The Constitutional (Philadelphia) Convention was called to revise / amend the Articles of Confederation in 1787.
PRESENT AT THE CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION: Benjamin Franklin George Washington Alexander Hamilton James Madison NOT PRESENT AT THE CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION: Thomas Jefferson John Adams John Hancock Benedict Arnold Revolutionary Leaders
Motives of the delegates to the 1787 Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia: • To preserve the union • To forestall anarchy • To ensure the security of life and property • To curb unrestrained democracy
16.Some Founders believed that majority rule could be a threat to Natural rights. Why ?
Most of the delegates at the Constitutional Convention could best be labeled nationalists.
The framer considered to be the “Father of the Constitution” was James Madison
VIRGINIA PLAN • Proposed by James Madison • Bicameral legislature • Two Houses • Executive chosen by the legislature • Judiciary also named by the legislature
Key Conflicts in the Constitutional Convention • Strong Central Governments VS. Strong States • Federalism • Large States VS. Small States • Representation • North VS. South • Slavery
The "large-state plan" put forward in the Constitutional Convention based representation in the House and Senate on population.
19.In the debate over representation in Congress, the larger states generally favored Proportional representation
THE GREAT COMPROMISE • Roger Sherman • Worked out an acceptable scheme for apportioning congressional representation • Created the legislative branch as bicameral • Equal Representation in Senate • Proportional Representation in House
The one branch of the government elected directly by the people is the House of Representatives
The idea that all tax measures should start in the House was made to appease the big states with the most people .
Slave issue related compromises • Congress prohibited from taking any action to control slavery for a period of 20 years (until 1808) • "three fifths" compromise • slaves count as 3/5 of person for representation and taxation