A Confederation of States • In 1781 the Americans had secured victory in the revolution and were now faced with starting a new nation. • When declaring independence the convention had each state write their own constitutions • Each state became its own nation • Each state had its own government and its own laws • Most states included a bill of rights in their constitutions • A list of freedoms guaranteed by the state.
The Articles of Confederation • In 1781 the 13 nation-states adopted the first federal constitution which united them • The Articles of Confederation • Basically became a group of nations that had a government to over see them • Federal government was only allowed to declare war for the group and regulate trade between foreign countries and Indian territory.
States powers • Each state set its own trade policy. • Tried to protect themselves, hurt their neighbors • Set taxes lower on other states to discourage them from trading, and encourage others to come to them • National government couldn’t do anything • Too weak!! • Couldn’t levy taxes. • States could contribute money but it wasn’t required • Couldn’t pay off debt
Articles too weak • No structure or organization • No president • Unicameral Congress • One House • Each state, no matter the size, got only 1 vote • Declaring war took a vote of 9 states • Amending the articles took a unanimous vote
Articles first Duty • Northwest territory • Gained post war • From Pennsylvania to Mississippi River • Congress controlled it. • Passed 2 laws to control it • Land Ordinance • Created a system to survey the land and sell to settlers • Northwest ordinance • Created government in territory, and how they become states • Also banned slavery in the territory
Problems start • No ability to defend the territory • Congress cant raise an army • Can request, but can be denied by each state • Spain, England, and France wont cooperate • Spain closes port of New Orleans • England wont leave forts by great lakes • French encourage native movement into territory • Cant raise an army to stop it.
Shays Rebellion • Debt • Congress cant pay war debt and country is entering a depression • Farmers faced losing farms and homes • Courts in Massachusetts start taking farms of people who cant pay state debt • Daniel Shays • Led armed farmers to shut down the courts • Congress couldn’t do anything! • Highlighted that the national government was too weak.
Fix the Articles • 1787 most understood the articles needed to be fixed. • States sent delegates to Philadelphia in May to work on fixing the articles • Quickly figured out that they needed some MAJOR CHANGES! • Couldn’t decide how to change it
Two Plans NEW JERSEY PLAN Virginia Plan • Favored by the Small States • Kept the confederation • Federal government would regulate commerce and taxes • Kept Unicameral legislature where states were equally represented (no matter the size) • States kept all other powers • Created by James Madison • Creates a National Union based on a republic • Large republic provides natural checks and balances. • Two House Legislature (Bicameral) • House and senate • Both based in population • Also featured a President
The Great Compromise • Small States didn’t want to be overpowered • Big states know that the articles are not strong enough • Compromise! • Stronger national government • House – based on population • Senate – based on equal representation • 3/5 compromise to help population numbers in the south.
Ratification (Passing the Constitution) Federalists Anti-Federalists • Supported the Constitution • Wanted a strong federal government • Lead by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay • Created the Federalist Papers to spread the word to get peoples support • Explained the American Government to the people • Opponents of the proposed Constitution • Patrick Henry and Samuel Adams • Thought it made the federal government too strong • Didn’t protect state rights • President too powerful • No protection of Rights
The Bill of Rights • To Help get the Constitution ratified the Federalists promised to add the bill of rights as soon as the new government convened. • In 1789 the constitution was approved and the ne congress approved the first 10 amendments to the constitution. • Granted freedom of speech, religion, press, assembly, bear arms.
Government under Washington • First Election was a landslide as George Washington was chosen as president • Set a Precedent that is still followed today • Established a Cabinet • Thomas Jefferson was Secretary of State • Alexander Hamilton- secretary of Treasury • Worked for the Good of the Nation • Hamilton wanted to cut debt by creating a national bank • Not in the Constitution • Left after two terms
National Bank Loose Interpretation Strict Interpretation • Hamilton believed that the national bank was necessary • Congress could pass it because it was for the general welfare of the nation • Necessary and proper clause • Jefferson felt that government would be too powerful if we allow a national bank • Congress can only do what is specifically stated in the constitution • In 1791 congress passed the national bank program, much to the frustration of Jefferson
Foreign Policy • The main policy of the Early United States was Neutrality • This was tested by the British • Jays Treaty - Britain gave up forts, kept shipping restrictions • Pinckney’s Treaty – Spanish allowed US to use New Orleans
Alien and Sedition Acts • Jays treaty angered the French • In response John Adams passed two acts • Alien Act • Made it more difficult for immigrants to become citizens • President can arrest and deport immigrants who criticize the federal government • Sedition Act • Made it a crime for citizens to publicly discredit federal leaders. • Thomas Jefferson removed these acts
Judicial Review • In 1801 John Marshall became chief Justice of the Supreme Court • Marbury v Madison • Gave supreme court the power of Judicial Review • Review acts of the president and congress and declare them unconstitutional • Gave more power to the Supreme Court.
Louisiana Purchase • 1803 • Napoleon Bonaparte agreed to sell the Louisiana territory to the US for $15 million dollars • Needed money to conquer Europe. • Jefferson sent Louis and Clark to explore the new territory.
War of 1812 • British troops were practicing Impressments • Jefferson persuaded congress to pass an embargo • American ships wouldn’t trade with England • Hurt us more than them • James Madison became president and realized there was no other option but war with the British • British invaded from Canada and burned down Washington DC • After 2 years of back and forth they reached a peace agreement • Didn’t change anything, but the new government survived it all.
Industrialization and Cotton Boom North South • With the end of the war technology from England came to America • Factories sprung up in the northern states • Immigrants came from Europe to get jobs • Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin lead to a re-emergence of slave labor and increased the production of cotton • Cotton output went from 1.5 million pounds to 167 million pounds • Took land from Native Americans to grow more cotton • Created separation between the North and the South
The Monroe Doctrine • 1817 James Monroe became president • Spain had lost control of its holdings in the New world • John Quincy Adams and James Monroe declared that European monarchies had no business in the Americas, and in return the US will stay out of European Affairs • Does little at first, US cant back it up, but will be significant later in history.
Jacksonian Democracy • Andrew Jackson started to rise in power when the country was becoming more democratic • This time period is now called Jacksonian Democracy • States changed voting laws and participation in elections grew. • Too bad Jackson didn’t win his first election • Corrupt Bargain gives John Quincy Adams a win • The next election Jackson wins by a landslide
Spoils System • Jackson rewarded his supporters by giving them government jobs. • To the victor go the spoils.
Indian Removal • In order to win support from the south Jackson was to help remove the natives off their land • Treaties had been made to remove them but they wouldn’t leave. • Supreme Court ruled that it was unconstitutional to remove the natives off their land • Jackson said, let them enforce it… • Urged congress to pass the Indian Removal Act • Moved natives to the Indian Territory in present day Oklahoma
Trail of Tears • 1836 majority of Natives fought to stay but were forcibly removed to the Indian territory. • In 1838 soldiers forced 15,000 Cherokees to move 1,000 miles • All so Americans could get land where gold was discovered earlier.
Nullification Crisis • In 1828 congress put a high tax on imported goods. • Favored the north, hurt the south • Vice president John C Calhoun, from South Carolina, pushed for his state to nullify the tariff • Make the law void if they didn’t agree with it • Jackson passed the tariff and Calhoun resigned • Encouraged south to ceded from union. • Jackson got permission to use force to enforce law, but also reduced the tariff, saving the union (for now.)
Economic Problems • Jackson didn’t like the second bank of the United States • Thought it favored the wealthy and punished others • Vetoed its renewal • Lead the creation of a New Political party • Whigs • Henry Clay and Daniel Webster. • Federal government should manage the economy • Jackson still won and divided the funds to other banks
Panic of 1837 • Van Buren became president right as the economy collapsed • Andrew Jackson stopped accepting paper money for land deals with the government causing the market to collapse. • This was a huge problem all through Van Buren’s presidency and ultimately lead to the victory for the Whig party with William Henry Harrison. • Who died of Pneumonia a month into his presidency • John Tyler becomes president and does nothing the whigs wanted.