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Introduction to Project-Based Learning

Introduction to Project-Based Learning

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Introduction to Project-Based Learning

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  1. Introduction to Project-Based Learning This computer science resource was developed through a collaboration between IBM Corporation and CSTA.

  2. Topics • Objectives, Slide 3 • An Introduction to PBL, Slides 4–21 • Creating High-Quality Projects, Slides 22–35 • PBL in the Classroom, Slides 36–48 • Assessment in a Project-Based Classroom, Slides 49–54 • Challenges Teachers Face in a Project-Based Classroom, Slides 55–61 • Planning a Project, Slides 62–69 • Acknowledgements, Slide 70 This computer science resource was developed through a collaboration between IBM Corporation and CSTA.

  3. Objectives Upon completion of these modules, teachers will be able to: • Define Project Based Learning (PBL) and related terminology. • Describe the benefits of PBL and its impact on student achievement. • Identify key elements in high-quality PBL projects. • Explain classroom and student management strategies. • Select appropriate assessment techniques for PBL. • Create a project that includes student activities, assessments, and time lines. This computer science resource was developed through a collaboration between IBM Corporation and CSTA.

  4. Introduction to Project-Based Learning (PBL) This computer science resource was developed through a collaboration between IBM Corporation and CSTA.

  5. PBL in the Classroom In this lesson you will explore the concept of PBL and how to implement it in the classroom as a strategy to meet rigorous standards and engage students in relevant, real-world experiential learning! This computer science resource was developed through a collaboration between IBM Corporation and CSTA.

  6. What does this Chinese proverb say about learning? Tell me—and I will forget. Show me—and I may remember. Involve me—and I will understand. Confucius (450 B.C.) This computer science resource was developed through a collaboration between IBM Corporation and CSTA.

  7. What does research tell us about learning and retention of knowledge and skills? Average Retention Rate 5% 10% 20% 30% 50% 75% 90% From: National Training Laboratories, Bethel Maine This computer science resource was developed through a collaboration between IBM Corporation and CSTA.

  8. What else does the research show? • Learning takes place within the context of culture, community and past experiences. • For students to become successful adults, they need both knowledge and skills. In the past 25 years, two very important developments in teaching and learning have been driven by a rapidly changing world. Buck Institute for Education http://www.bie.org/pbl/pblhandbook/intro.php Downloaded 9/12/05. This computer science resource was developed through a collaboration between IBM Corporation and CSTA.

  9. How have these changes affected teaching and learning? • The emphasis is on process. • Learners must be taught skills that will transfer to the workplace. • A greater focus is being placed on standards and accountability for both teachers and students. Buck Institute for Education http://www.bie.org/pbl/pblhandbook/intro.php Downloaded 9/12/05. This computer science resource was developed through a collaboration between IBM Corporation and CSTA.

  10. How can we meet the new challenges? Teacher 1 might say: “Using PBL is one answer to meeting the challenges we face!” Teacher 2 might respond: “But teachers have always used projects as culminating or change-of-pace activities. So how is PBL any different from what good teachers have always done?” This computer science resource was developed through a collaboration between IBM Corporation and CSTA.

  11. What is PBL? PBL is an instructional method that challenges students to • Learn to learn. • Seek solutions to real-world problems. University of Delaware, www.udel.edu/pbl Downloaded 8/3/05. This computer science resource was developed through a collaboration between IBM Corporation and CSTA.

  12. How is PBL different? • Problems and projects are used to engage students’ curiosity and initiate learning the subject matter. • PBL prepares students to: • Think critically and analytically. • Find and use appropriate learning resources. University of Delaware, www.udel.edu/pbl. Downloaded 8/3/05. This computer science resource was developed through a collaboration between IBM Corporation and CSTA.

  13. How does PBL impact student achievement? Students acquire new knowledge and skills in the process of • Designing • Planning • Producing some new product or performance. Project-Based Learning with Multimedia, The Challenge 2000 Multimedia Project, San Mateo County Office of Education, http://pblmm.k12.ca.us/overview/25800/index.html. Downloaded 8/3/05. This computer science resource was developed through a collaboration between IBM Corporation and CSTA.

  14. How does PBL impact student achievement? Project Based learning helps students develop: • Collaborative skills—Teamwork • Communication skills • Planning and organizational skills • Problem-solving skills and strategies Project-Based Learning with Multimedia, The Challenge 2000 Multimedia Project, San Mateo County Office of Education, http://pblmm.k12.ca.us/overview/25800/index.html. Downloaded 8/3/05. This computer science resource was developed through a collaboration between IBM Corporation and CSTA.

  15. Imagine … • Create a ticketing and sales tracking system for a school performance. • Design and develop their own PONG video game. • Interpret real-time data and present it in a unique and creative way! A classroom in which students are actively engaged in solving a real-world problem, working individually or in collaborative teams to: This computer science resource was developed through a collaboration between IBM Corporation and CSTA.

  16. Investigate Visit http://www.edutopia.org and view video clips of teachers and students engaged in PBL. • Find “Topics” on the left side of the page and select “Project Based Learning”. • Click on the “Documentaries” tab. • Click on the “Browse Videos by Topic” list arrow and select “Project Based Learning”. • Select a video that correlates to your grade level or subject area … or just pick one that looks interesting! This computer science resource was developed through a collaboration between IBM Corporation and CSTA.

  17. Now that you have seen PBL in action, can you answer this question? This computer science resource was developed through a collaboration between IBM Corporation and CSTA.

  18. Why use PBL in the classroom? • Promotes life-long learning. • Accommodates students with varied learning styles and levels. • Impacts student learning/achievement. This computer science resource was developed through a collaboration between IBM Corporation and CSTA.

  19. Why use PBL in the classroom? Using PBL: • Allows students to become active participants rather than passive observers in their own learning. • Supports self-directed learning. • Allows students to be risk-takers. • Reinforces that there are multiple ways to solve problems. This computer science resource was developed through a collaboration between IBM Corporation and CSTA.

  20. For More Information about PBL • Visit Edutopia to find more in-depth research and information. http://www.edutopia.org/php/keyword.php?id=037 • Visit the Buck Institute for Education and review the PBL Handbook. http://www.bie.org/pbl/pblhandbook/intro.php This computer science resource was developed through a collaboration between IBM Corporation and CSTA.

  21. Reflection • What have you learned about PBL so far that has made you think differently about how you teach and how your students learn? • Will you make any changes in the way that you deliver instruction as a result of the information provided? • How do you see PBL fitting into your current curriculum? • How do you feel that PBL can be used most appropriately? • When does teacher-centered instruction fit in your classroom? This computer science resource was developed through a collaboration between IBM Corporation and CSTA.

  22. Creating High-Quality Projects This computer science resource was developed through a collaboration between IBM Corporation and CSTA.

  23. What Constitutes a Good Project? “When you design a project, you are designing for learning rather than planning for teaching.” Constructivist Learning Design, George W. Gagnon, Jr., and Michelle Collay, www.prainbow.com/cld/cldp.html. Downloaded 8/3/05. This computer science resource was developed through a collaboration between IBM Corporation and CSTA.

  24. What Constitutes a Good Project? • Real-world and relevant • Open-ended • Higher-order thinking • Challenging • Student-centered • Self-directed learning • Collaborative This computer science resource was developed through a collaboration between IBM Corporation and CSTA.

  25. Real-World and Relevant • Based on life situations scaled to the student’s ability level. • Reflect real-world messy, everyday problems and tasks. • Are relevant and meaningful to the learner. • Facilitates transfer of learning. Creates “I’ve seen something like this before” moments. This computer science resource was developed through a collaboration between IBM Corporation and CSTA.

  26. Open Ended • No one right answer • No one right path • Requires problem-solving and higher-order thinking • Requires exploration • Facilitates risk-taking This computer science resource was developed through a collaboration between IBM Corporation and CSTA.

  27. Challenging • Designed to challenge learners just beyond current abilities. • Composed of multiple activities, each activity related to the larger project goal. • Requires students to seek out and use information in a variety of new ways. This computer science resource was developed through a collaboration between IBM Corporation and CSTA.

  28. Higher-Order Thinking • Requires students not just to recall, but to analyze, synthesize, and evaluate information. • Opportunities to solve predictable and unpredictable problems. • Asks questions to get students thinking/headed in right direction. • Scaffolds project tasks to guide learners through the process. This computer science resource was developed through a collaboration between IBM Corporation and CSTA.

  29. Self-Directed Learning • Empowers students to take ownership of own learning. • Develops learning skills instead of spoon-feeding answers. • Can occur with or without help of others. This computer science resource was developed through a collaboration between IBM Corporation and CSTA.

  30. Student Centered • Learners are at the center of the instruction and learning environment. • Progressively given choice (ownership) in how project will develop and emerge. • Grounded in the learner’s experiences. • Guided based on learner needs. • Teacher Centered: They'll get this lecture today because it represents the next chapter in the book or because it interests me! This computer science resource was developed through a collaboration between IBM Corporation and CSTA.

  31. Collaborative • Reflective of work situation in the real world. • Provides opportunities to construct meaning. • Enhances social skills and interaction • group decision-making • conflict management • communication • Provides opportunities in leadership. This computer science resource was developed through a collaboration between IBM Corporation and CSTA.

  32. Remember PBL is Learning in Action Students become active participants, not passive observers. PBL allows students to: • Develop a problem-solving process that can be used throughout life—higher congruency with workplace needs. • Synthesize independent ideas/knowledge into a useful product. • Look for answers and solutions and construct meaning. • Support the development of personal and social responsibility. This computer science resource was developed through a collaboration between IBM Corporation and CSTA.

  33. PBL is also Teaching in Action Using PBL in the classroom can: • Create a powerful learning community where students and teacher are focused on achievement. • Provide a new approach to teaching that can • Revitalize • Reenergize • Excite teachers and students! This computer science resource was developed through a collaboration between IBM Corporation and CSTA.

  34. PBL is also Teaching in Action • Once up-front planning is complete, teachers can focus on facilitating. • Less daily explanation, more direct interaction with students • Provides a better sense of what students are actually learning. This computer science resource was developed through a collaboration between IBM Corporation and CSTA.

  35. Reflection • Think about a project that you currently use in your classroom. • Compare and contrast it with the elements of a high-quality project discussed in this module. • How might you change or adapt the project to make it fit the PBL high-quality project indicators? This computer science resource was developed through a collaboration between IBM Corporation and CSTA.

  36. Using PBL in the Classroom Management Strategies This computer science resource was developed through a collaboration between IBM Corporation and CSTA.

  37. How does a teacher’s role change in a PBL classroom? In a PBL classroom, teachers: • Become facilitators rather than disseminators of information. • Let students see the teacher as learner too. • Guide the learners to resources where the answer may be discovered rather than teaching the answer. • Model problem-solving processes. • Coach and encourage students to become self-directed learners. • Continuously assess student learning. • Create and manage student teams. This computer science resource was developed through a collaboration between IBM Corporation and CSTA.

  38. How do you create and manage teams in a PBL classroom? • In this new role as facilitator, teachers must create and manage student teams. • There are certain ingredients that should always be addressed. • These team ingredients can make or break a project. • Teachers must incorporate and facilitate each of these ingredients. This computer science resource was developed through a collaboration between IBM Corporation and CSTA.

  39. Creating and Managing Teams Team Ingredients include: • Common Goals • Interdependence • Interaction • Perception of team members • Motivation This computer science resource was developed through a collaboration between IBM Corporation and CSTA.

  40. Student self-selected teams: Reinforces the decision-making process. Teams may be more cohesive or can become more argumentative. May cause conflict among friends. Teacher-selected teams: Distributes ability among groups but may create difficulties with interaction among team members. More closely emulates a real-world environment. Creating and Managing Teams This computer science resource was developed through a collaboration between IBM Corporation and CSTA.

  41. Creating and Managing Teams Team Selection Issues to Consider • Use different approaches (teacher vs. self select) for projects throughout the year. • Team Size—3–5 students works well: • Partnerships may also be appropriate depending on the project. • Larger groups tend to increase challenges. • Smaller groups may have a dominate member. • Teachers should monitor teams closely by meeting with them on a regular basis for feedback. This computer science resource was developed through a collaboration between IBM Corporation and CSTA.

  42. Creating and Managing Teams Team Composition Considerations • Heterogeneous teams provide: • Alternative perspectives to knowledge and learning. • A situation more reflective of the real world. • Include students with varied strengths and abilities • Homogeneous teams provide: • An opportunity for teachers to reinforce specific skill gaps. • Allows students on the same ability level to work together. This computer science resource was developed through a collaboration between IBM Corporation and CSTA.

  43. Creating and Managing Teams Discuss Team Interaction Expectations • Dialogue together: process that builds shared meanings and definitions of a problem. • Consensus decision making. • Handling team members who are not contributing equally. This computer science resource was developed through a collaboration between IBM Corporation and CSTA.

  44. Creating and Managing Teams Possible Team Problems • Social Loafing • Domineering teammates • Destructive Criticism • Failure to resolve conflict • Uneven distribution of workload Computer Science and Information Technology Symposium, June 28, 2005, Abigail Gonzales, Northface University. This computer science resource was developed through a collaboration between IBM Corporation and CSTA.

  45. Creating and Managing Teams Team Solutions • Social Loafing: • Build in individual accountability • Revisit rules • Allow team to brainstorm solutions together • Domineering Teammates: • Role rotation • Teacher mediation This computer science resource was developed through a collaboration between IBM Corporation and CSTA.

  46. Creating and Managing Teams Team Solutions • Destructive Criticism: • Keep it “professional” not “personal” • Model constructive criticism • Review rules – destructive criticism not allowed! • Failure to Resolve Conflict: • Recognize it won’t go away on its own • Encourage discussion This computer science resource was developed through a collaboration between IBM Corporation and CSTA.

  47. Creating and Managing Teams Team Solutions • Uneven Distribution of Workload • Identify functional roles • Rotate roles • Provide ongoing review and feedback This computer science resource was developed through a collaboration between IBM Corporation and CSTA.

  48. Creating and Managing Teams • Reflect on the following questions • List three tips for creating teams that you learned in this module. • List 3 tips that you learned for managing teams in this module. • How will using collaborative teams change instruction and interaction in your classroom? This computer science resource was developed through a collaboration between IBM Corporation and CSTA.

  49. Assessment and Evaluation in the PBL Classroom This computer science resource was developed through a collaboration between IBM Corporation and CSTA.

  50. Assessment & Evaluation Sharing learning is a critical element that provides feedback during the project. Students need constant feedback as they work through the process of solving problems so they can: • Share new knowledge. • Celebrate learning. • Demonstrate product and process. • Recognize the various creative solutions offered for the same problem. This computer science resource was developed through a collaboration between IBM Corporation and CSTA.