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Good Energy: Energy Saved by Efficient Buildings

Good Energy: Energy Saved by Efficient Buildings

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Good Energy: Energy Saved by Efficient Buildings

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  1. Good Energy: Energy Saved by Efficient Buildings Presentation by Matthew Read mread@kentlaw.edu for Energy Law- Spring 2006 Chicago-Kent College of Law

  2. Overview • What is efficiency? • How do owners build and retrofit for efficiency? • What incentives do building owners have to operate efficiently?

  3. What is Efficiency? • Definition: Using less energy to do the same amount of work • Distinguish from conservation: doing less work with less energy 17 J. Land Use & Envtl. Law 421

  4. Environmental Benefits of Using Less Energy • Fewer emissions • Fewer generators • Fewer transmission lines/ pipelines needed • Fewer resources used

  5. How to Build and Retrofit for Efficiency: 3 Categories • Envelope • Lighting • Mechanical

  6. Building Envelope http://www.vobb.com/construction-photos/LA-Labauve/Labauve-400-interior-insulation.jpg

  7. Building Envelope (2) • Glazing (Windows) • Shading Coefficient- SCx • Glazing assembly • Horizontal overhang • Opaque (Walls) • Insulation material • Positioning of insulation • Overall heat capacity http://www.energycodes.gov/federal/exist_fedcom.stm

  8. Window Assemblies R-factor: insulation performance • Assembly material: wood or vinyl • Gas fill: Ar and Kr • Weather stripping http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=windows_doors.pr_anat_window#coefficients

  9. Window Assemblies (2) Low emittance glass coatings prevent solar radiation: • Direct Transmittance • Absorption/ Desorption

  10. Climate Zones http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=windows_doors.pr_crit_windows#map

  11. Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC) from Coatings • The SHGC tells how well the product blocks heat caused by sunlight. • High SHGC- as much heat from the sun can enter as clear glass. For cool summers and very cold winters. • Moderate SHGC- screen a portion of the sun’s heat. • Low SHGC- screen the most heat from the sun. More important in the south. http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=windows_doors.pr_anat_window#coefficients

  12. Lighting

  13. Lighting (2) • Light reduction controls • Automatic shutoff • Energy Efficient lighting Sources to light paths, walkways, and parking lots. • 45 lumens/ Watt • Fluorescent • Compact fluorescent • Metal halide http://www.energycodes.gov/training/commercial_training.stm

  14. Energy-Efficient Lighting Sources http://www.energycodes.gov/training/commercial_training.stm

  15. Light emitting diodes (LEDs) Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) Light emitting polymers Benefits Reduced energy consumption Longer life Better quality light More durable The Future: Solid State Lighting

  16. Excess Heat Generated by Lighting Elements 85 btus/ hour 3.4 btus/ hour

  17. Mechanical

  18. Mechanical (2) • Heating and cooling loads • HVAC equipment performance requirements • Temperature and humidity controls (thermostat) • Ventilation • Duct insulation and sealing

  19. Incentives to Operate Efficient Buildings • Building Codes • Monetary Savings through: • Energy costs • Tax Incentives

  20. Efficiency Building Codes: What are they? • Uniform standards for efficiency • Unique requirements for: • Residential • Commercial • Federal

  21. Commercial or Residential? • A Residential building is classified as any single family houses, duplexes, and multifamily residential buildings three stories or less. www.energycodes.gov/implement/pdfs/illinois_res_final.pdf

  22. Building Code Example (1) Federal Register Volume 65 Number 195

  23. Building Code Example (2)

  24. Building Codes: Where do they come from? • State made: CA • Adopting Model standards such as the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) created by the International Code Council (ICC). • Updated periodically

  25. Who adopts the code? • Federal Government (federal buildings) • State governments • Partial adoption • Local governments • Partial adoption

  26. Energy Codes: How to comply may be your choice! • Different approaches for compliance available in MEC and IECC: • Prescriptive • Trade off • Performance

  27. Prescriptive Compliance • List of values for each component • E.g. Lists minimum U-values or maximum R-values for each building component. • Quick and Easy • Restrictive: based on worst case scenario. • Overspending

  28. Trade-off Compliance • Trade enhanced energy efficiency of one component against decreased energy efficiency of another. • E.g. trade decreased wall efficiency with increased window efficiency. • Less restrictive

  29. Federal Code Check

  30. ComCheck

  31. Performance Compliance • Compare your design with a baseline or reference design and demonstrate that the proposed design is at least as efficient. • Flexibility • More Effort • Complex projects

  32. Illinois DOE Energy Codes • Voluntary Residential Code. Individual local governments have adopted IECC. • 2001 IECC Commercial Code • Can use COMcheck to show compliance

  33. Monetary Savings

  34. Furnace Replacement Savings http://www.aceee.org/consumerguide/topfurn.htm

  35. Money Savings from DOE Building Energy Codes Program • DOE’s $37.5 M investment has resulted in energy savings of $1B per year. • Cumulative cost savings from program is over $4.2B. • Every $1 spent on program has yielded more than $105 in annual energy savings. www.energycodes.gov/index.stm

  36. Tax Incentives (2005 EPAct) • Improved lighting, HVAC, hot water systems, and building envelope improvements. • Cap: Deduction is equal to the amount spent subject to cap of $1.80 per square foot of property. • Time limit

  37. Conclusion Building Codes are Mandatory!