Colonial Trade & Faction Mercantilism Navigation Acts Colonial Rebellion The Enlightenment
English Mercantilism • Charles II: 1660-1685, colonial strategy • Gold: build up gold reserves. • Manufacturing: use colonial raw material • Trade: export more than import • Limit competition from other countries. • Navy: build strong navy to protect trade. • Protectionism: high import duties.
Navigation Acts • Series of laws to achieve Mercantilist goals • 1) Only English ships and crew could trade • with the colonies • 2) Enumerated goods: tobacco, sugar, • Cotton, indigo, rice, molasses, rosin, tar, fur. • Could only be shipped to England • 3) Staple Act: all imports to America first • had to go to English ports. 4) 1673: tax collected at American ports, Admiralty Court • Effect: on whole, probably helped America
Colonial Rebellions • Bacon’s Rebellion: Virginian indentured, • Poor, rise up. Governor does not fight • Indians. Bacon burns Jamestown. (1676) • Colonial Glorious Revolution:1686 JamesII • The Dominion (7 colonies). Governor Andros. • Enforce Navigation Acts, pay taxes, abolished all assemblies. English Revolution. Mass. deposes Andros. New royal charters. (1689).
The Enlightenment • “Age of Reason,” science • Rational explanation for everything • Man can improve environment • Institutions should be based on reason. • Deism: God like watchmaker • Newton, Locke, Galileo, Voltaire, • Ben Franklin: practical, stove, electricity, • Library, fire dept, Philosophical Society, lottery • Bifocals, Poor Richards Almanac