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Present Day Delhi Sultanate Countries

Present Day Delhi Sultanate Countries

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Present Day Delhi Sultanate Countries

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  1. Present Day Delhi Sultanate Countries Ismail Umar

  2. Map of the Delhi Sultanate

  3. Countries • India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Afghanistan

  4. Geography of India • Occupies most of the Indian Subcontinent in Southern Asia • One third the size of the USA • Borders on China in the northeast, Pakistan on the west, Nepal and Bhutan on the north, and Burma and Bangladesh on the east • Geography can be divided into three major groups: Northern, Indo-Gangetic Plain and Southern • North is mountainous, Indo-Gangetic Plain is where most agriculture takes place, and Southern is the plateau region • Three great river systems: The Ganges, the Indus, and the Brahmaputra • All have extensive deltas and all rise up into the Himalayas

  5. Demographics • Population: 1,236,344,631 • Total dependency ratio: 51.8% • Median age (male and female): 27 years • Population growth rate: 1.25% • Gender ratio: 1.08 males/female

  6. Geography of Pakistan • On the Western part of the Indian Subcontinent • China on the north, Iran on the west, India on the east, and Arabian Sea on the south • The Indus River (1000 miles long) flows through the country from the Kashmir region to the Arabian Sea • Northern and Western highlands contain the Karakoram and Pamir mountain ranges, which contain some of the world’s largest peaks • K2 and Nanga Parbat are examples • Pakistan is nearly twice the size of California

  7. Demographics • Population: 196,174,380 • Total dependency ratio: 60.4% • Median Age (male and female): 22.6 years • Population growth rate: 1.49% • Gender ratio: 1.06 males/female

  8. Geography of Bangladesh • Northern coast of the Bay of Bengal • Surrounded by India • Small common border with Myanmar in the southeast • Many branches of the Ganges and Brahmaputra Rivers pass through the country • Slightly smaller than the state of Iowa

  9. Demographics • Population: 166,280,712 • Total dependency ratio: 52.2% • Median age (male and female): 24.3 years • Population growth rate: 1.6% • Gender ratio: 0.95 males/female

  10. Geography of Afghanistan • Bordered on the north by Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan • On the extreme northeast by China • On the east and south by Pakistan • Split East to West by Hindu Kush mountain range • Approximately the size of Texas

  11. Demographics • Population: 31,822,848 • Total dependency ratio: 93.1% • Median age (male and female): 18.1 years • Population growth rate: 2.29% • Gender ratio: 1.03 males/female

  12. Culture/Administration of India • Among the world’s oldest cultures, dating back about 5,000 years • Over 400 languages spoken, with the country being divided into 28 states and 7 territories • Food: Arab, Turkish and European influences utilizing several different herbs and spices • Many Hindus are vegetarians, but lamb and chicken are the common choices of meat for non-vegetarians • India has a dance tradition that is more than 2,000 years old • Traditional clothing for women is the sari, with men wearing dhotis, or kurtas • Government is a federal republic with two legislative bodies • Executive branch of the government has a chief of state and a head of government

  13. Culture/Administration of Pakistan • Official language is Urdu, with English, Punjabi, Sindhi, Pushto, Balochi, Saraiki being commonly spoken • Like Indian cuisine, Pakistani cuisine is also influenced by Turkish, Arab and European cuisine • Spices are greatly used • The use of ghee – or clarified butter – is common • The country observes Muslim law, which is why alcohol and pork is illegal • Islamic holidays such as Eid are observed • Traditional clothing is shalwarkameez • Government consists of a Prime minister, president and a Parliament with the senate being the upper house and National assembly being the lower house

  14. Culture/Administration of Bangladesh • Formerly known as East Pakistan • Primary language is Bangla, and is divided into sadhu basha (formal language) and cholitbasha (common language) • Popular foods include rice, fish, and vegetables cooked in a spicy curry sauce • Food is normally consumed with the right hand, but restaurant catering to foreigners may use silverware • Traditional dress for men is the lungi and for women it is the sari • Clothes can indicate status in a society, with white clothes on a man indicating high status. For a woman, an intricate sari indicated high status • Government consists of a president, prime minister and a unicameral (one house) parliament • Prime minister is appointed by president

  15. Culture/Administration of Afghanistan • Official languages are Persian and Pushto • Educated and urban people prefer to speak Persian • Afghan good is generally less spicy than the cuisine belonging to other countries in the subcontinent • Yoghurt, meat stock, flatbread, dried fruits and nuts are the foundation of Afghan cuisine • Tea is drunk throughout the day • On special occasions, pulao is served with mutton, dried fruits, carrots and nuts • The country follows Islamic law, so only meat slaughtered according to Islamic rules can be eaten • The Taliban has control over the country, which is why it takes no part in official trade • The government is only recognized by Pakistan, the UAE and Saudi Arabia

  16. Society/Religion of India • The country is divided into 28 states and 7 territories • People are primarily divided into two different ethnicities: Aryan and Dravidian • About 84% of the population is Hindu • Many Hindu sects exist, such as Shaiva, Vaishnava, Shakteya, and Smarta • 13% of the population is Muslim. This makes India one of the largest Islamic nations in the world • Very few Christians and Sikhs, and even fewer Jains and Buddhists • The caste system is the foundation of Indian society

  17. Society/Religion of Pakistan • 4 major provinces/ethnicities (though it is argued that more than 4 exist) • Approximately 95% of the population is Muslim, with a very small amount of Christians, Buddhists, Hindus and Parsis • All Muslim holidays and days of worship are observed (Ex: EidMilad-Un-Nabi and Ramzan) • No caste system exists • Low literacy rates and child labor are prominent issues

  18. Society/Religion of Bangladesh • In 1947, many Hindus moved to West Bengal, and millions of Muslims went to East Pakistan (Bangladesh) which led to conflict • Nowadays, Muslims and Hindus – for the most part – live in harmony • Class system exists, both in Muslim and Hindu societies • In the Muslim societies, ashrafis the name given to upperclass Muslims descended from Muslim officials in Afghanistan. The rest of the people are known was atraf • In rural areas, the amount of land and education one has dictates social stature • The life of most women is centered around their children, and the household • Two female Prime Ministers since 1991

  19. Society/Religion of Afghanistan • Dominant Muslim role is present in the country • The country recognizes the authority of the Qur’an • Tensions between different sects (Sunni, Shia, Sufi etc.) exist • Artistic expression has been banned by the Taliban • Literacy is almost non existent, with only 22 percent of the adult population having received any form of formal education • Interaction between males and females outside the family is nearly nonexistent, and is highly frowned upon

  20. Architecture of India • There are 8 historic types of cities and towns: ancient pilgrimage centers, local market towns, medieval fortified towns, ancient seaports, military centers originally set up by the British, modern administrative centers, industrial centers, and large modern-day metropolises • Indian architecture – like Indian cuisine – shows Persian, Turkic and Arabic influences • Large temples showing influence from different religions such as Islam, Christianity, Hinduism and Sikhism is apparent • The TajMahal is one of the most popular examples of Islamic architecture present in India

  21. Architecture of Pakistan • The relative newness of Islamabad – the capital – is the reason for it having relatively modern architecture • Rawalpindi, which is right next to Islamabad is almost 3000 years old, and has kept its historical look • Lahore is another well known area, which is about 4000 years old and was the cultural center for the Mughal Empire • Some of the famous buildings and parks of Pakistan are the Shalimar Gardens, Minar-e-Pakistan, and Faisal masjid

  22. Architecture of Bangladesh • Village houses are usually rectangular, and are made of dried mud, bamboo or red brick • Usually, kitchens are separate structures made from mud or bamboo, and are referred to as “ranaghor” • Most are built on top of a platform to keep them above the flood line • Mughal and Islamic influences are found in the cities • Curved arches and minarets are examples

  23. Architecture of Afghanistan • Several historical places such as Herat and Ghazni are present, but after so many years of war, their preservation is considered to be important • Most towns and cities are in ruins, and the concept of reconstruction is virtually unknown • High walls and multi-storied houses made of mud and straw are popular in the south and center • In the North, the compounds are smaller and much stronger • Houses are built in a way that the private and public parts are separated so that women may not come in contact with strangers

  24. Trade and Commerce in India • Major trading partners are Russia, the US, the UK and Germany • Economy is based on agriculture • The major industries are tourism, clothing, tea, and coffee • A recent rise in the computer software industry has also been noted

  25. Trade and Commerce in Pakistan • Major exports include cotton, rice, leather goods, carpets, handicrafts and food • Major imports are vehicles, iron ore, petrol, and industrial equipment • International trade partners: US, Hong Kong, Japan, Germany, UK, and UAE • 48% of workers in service sector, 25 in agriculture and 27 in industry

  26. Trade and Commerce in Bangladesh • Total exports in 1996: $4.4 billion • Primary export items: fish, garments, and textiles • Total imports: $7.1 billion • Main items for import: capital goods, grains, petrol, and chemicals • Agriculture accounts for about 25% of the GDP

  27. Trade and Commerce in Afghanistan • The government is not recognized by the international community, which is why international trade may not take place • Wool, dry fruits and fresh fruits are exported to Pakistan, UAE and Saudi Arabia, but the major portion of Afghanistan’s exports is narcotics such as hash and heroin • Goods such as cars, ACs, TVs, and radios are imported (tax free) through Pakistan • These products then get smuggled to other countries

  28. Economy of India • Highest amount of workers in the farming/agricultural sector • GDP per capita is approx. $1,500 • Annual inflation is approx. 9% • Plantation crops like tea, coffee, and rubber are very important as they attract foreign investment

  29. Economy of Pakistan • GDP per capita is approx. $1,300 • About 35% of Pakistanis live below the poverty line • Relies heavily on foreign loans • The sale of handicrafts is popular, and it makes up a large percentage of commercial sales

  30. Economy of Bangladesh • One of the poorest countries in the world • Per capita GNP of only $350 • 75% of workforce focuses on agriculture

  31. Economy of Afghanistan • Wheat is the principal crop • Cotton used to be a major sash crop, but the Taliban have converted agricultural land to poppy cultivation for heroin • Pretty much all manufactured goods have to be imported • The economy depends on smuggled goods, and no definitive statistics for GDP or GNP exist

  32. Sources • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •