1 / 13

Introduction to Psychology

Types of Behaviors. Innate behaviors: inborn; reflexiveBaby brushed on cheekLearned behaviors: relatively permanent change in behavior/behavior potential as a result of practice/experienceCPR training. How Do We Learn?. Three major theories attempt to explain how we learn:ConditioningCognitive learning theoryObservational learning theory.

Télécharger la présentation

Introduction to Psychology

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. Content is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only. Download presentation by click this link. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server. During download, if you can't get a presentation, the file might be deleted by the publisher.


Presentation Transcript

    1. Introduction to Psychology Learning

    2. Types of Behaviors Innate behaviors: inborn; reflexive Baby brushed on cheek Learned behaviors: relatively permanent change in behavior/behavior potential as a result of practice/experience CPR training

    3. How Do We Learn? Three major theories attempt to explain how we learn: Conditioning Cognitive learning theory Observational learning theory

    4. Conditioning Learning that occurs when an association is made between a stimulus and a response Two types of conditioning: Classical conditioning Operant conditioning

    5. Classical Conditioning (Fig. 5-2) Neutral stimulus: Unconditioned stimulus: Unconditioned response: Conditioned stimulus: Conditioned response: E.g.: Pavlovs dogs, Little Albert Key: the learned response is reflexive

    6. More Terms Extinction: Spontaneous recovery: Generalization: E.g.: Little Albert scared of anything furry Discrimination: E.g.: The difference between spiders

    7. Operant Conditioning Learning that occurs when a response to an environmental cue is reinforced Key: here the learned response is voluntary

    8. Even More Terms Reinforcement: action/event that increases likelihood behavior will be repeated Primary reinforcers: increase behavior as they satisfy unlearned biological needs Secondary reinforcers: properties learned Appreciating the audiences clapping for you Punishment: action/event that decreases likelihood behavior will be repeated

    9. Types of Reinforcements and Punishments (Fig. 5-6) Positive Reinforcement: Negative Reinforcement: Key: what is reinforcing to one isnt necessarily reinforcing to another Note: beware of the vicious circle E.g.: child in store Positive Punishment: Negative Punishment:

    10. Side Effects of Punishment Can lead to passive-aggressiveness, often displayed in subtle ways: Procrastination, pouting, intentional inefficiency Punisher may become more aggressive May lead to avoidance behaviors Learned helplessness and punishment

    11. Shaping Teaching a desired behavior by reinforcing a series of successive steps until the target behavior is learned E.g.: Volunteer task

    12. Cognitive Learning Study cognitive (thinking) processes Basic belief: much, if not all, learning involves mental processes Wolfgang Kohler: insight learning Sultan the chimp Tolmans latent learning: occurs in the absence of reward; hidden until needed Cognitive maps: mental images of areas

    13. Observational Learning Banduras social-learning theory we learn by watching others who serve as models Four steps to learning via observation Pay attention to model Process and remember the behavior Must be able to perform the behavior Repeat behavior - based on whether model was reinforced or punished (E.g.: aggression/Bobo)

More Related