Download
introduction to psychology n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Introduction to Psychology PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Introduction to Psychology

Introduction to Psychology

162 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

Introduction to Psychology

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Introduction to Psychology Chapter 1

  2. Definition • Psychology – study of human and animal behavior and mental processes • How people think • How people feel • How people behave

  3. Hypothesis – educated guess • Theory – ideas that are tested, but not proven

  4. Scientific Method • Identify problem • Formulate hypothesis • Test hypothesis • Collect data • Analyze data

  5. Identify Problem • Students with ADD have problems sitting in a classroom for entire class period

  6. Formulate hypothesis • If the teacher has the student assigned to tasks to get the child out of their seat periodically the child will be able to pay attention for the rest of the amount of time

  7. Test Hypothesis • Create the tasks for the student and have them complete the tasks

  8. Collect the data • Document the child’s attention span during “learning times”

  9. Analyze Data • Was there a change in the students attention?

  10. Goals of psychology • Describe • Explain • Predict • Control

  11. Describe • A student that is depressed will sleep more often, change friends, possibly use drugs and alcohol

  12. Explain • They change friends because of the use of drugs/alcohol • They lack seratonin in the brain

  13. Predict • A student with depression will struggle in school unless they get help

  14. Control • Put the child on medication that increases seratonin • Get the child therapy

  15. History of Psychology • Ancient greeks – people were dominated by the gods • 1600’s – dualism – world is divided into 2 parts, mind and matter • Rene Descartes – link between mind and matter • End of 1600’s – John Locke

  16. John Locke • Empiricism – all knowledge obtained from observation and experience • Tabula Rosa – blank slate

  17. Sir Francis Galton 1869 • Hereditary influences • Believed in nature • Began nature vs. nurture debate

  18. Psychology as a Science • Wilhelm Wundt (1879) – founder of psychology • Physiologist but interested in studying the mind • Introspection – method of self-observation

  19. William James • interested in conscious mind • Thinking, feeling, remembering

  20. Ivan Pavlov 1904 • Classical conditioning • Training a reflex

  21. Sigmund Freud 1938 • Interested in Unconscious mind • Primitive biological urges • Free association – say whatever comes to mind (uncover unconscious thoughts) • Dream analysis – similar to free association but used dreams

  22. B.F. Skinner 1940’s • Observable behavior • Operant conditioning • Train a voluntary response • Ideas used to toilet train, lose weight, quit smoking

  23. Research • Samples – selecting a small group to study • Must represent wide variety of population

  24. Biased sample • When your sample isn’t representative of entire population • Avoiding biased sample • Random sampling • Ex. Draw from a hat • Stratified sampling • Ex. Researcher picks to represent all subgroups • Sample size

  25. Types of research • Correlation • Experiment • Naturalistic observation • Case study • Survey • Longitudinal study • Cross - cultural

  26. Correlation • Relationship between 2 sets of data • Positive correlation – high value for one variable corresponds to a high value of another variable • Negative correlation – high value for one variable corresponds to a low value of another variable

  27. Experiment • Independent variable (IV) – variable the experimenter delibrately controls • Dependant variable (DV) – variable researchers believe will be affected by the IV • Control group – doesn’t research treatment (placebo) • Experimental group – subjects undergo treatment

  28. Naturalistic observation • Observing human/animals in natural setting • Ad. Get accurate behavior • Dis. Hard to be in natural setting

  29. Case study • Intense study of an individual or small group over a period of time • Ad. Look at individual problem • Dis. Sample size too small

  30. Survey • Practical way to gather data on beliefs, attitudes, actions of a large group • Ad. eliminates research bias • Dis. Subjects could lie

  31. Longitudinal study • Study the same group of subjects over a long period of time • Ad. Consistent and inconsistent behavior • Dis. Time consuming

  32. Cross-Cultural Study • Comparison of people’s beliefs, values, behaviors from different cultures