The Cold War Begins Ch. 19, Sec 1, 2
In meetings, FDR underestimated Stalin. • Believed he could control him; very wrong. • Even though US & USSR were allies during war, political systems were radically different, could not get along. • US supported anti-Communists in Russian Revolution, refused to recognize Communist gov’t until 1933. • Stalin angry at time it took for US/UK to invade Europe while Russians died. • US angry over nonaggression pact Stalin signed w/ Hitler. • As war came to an end, tension between allies grew.
Yalta Conference • First problems emerged. • Stalin demanded Germany pay $20 billion reparations to USSR. • FDR, Churchill refused. • FDR asked Stalin to enter war against Japan; Stalin refused until offered control of 2 Japanese islands. • Stalin wanted control of Poland to prevent another invasion; FDR, Churchill demanded legal elections. • Stalin eventually agreed, but elections never occurred. • All agreed on creation of United Nations.
Truman • April 12, 1945-FDR died in Warm Springs, GA. • Vice-President Harry S Truman now President. • Unprepared, but learned quickly. • July 1945-Potsdam Conference-Truman’s first meeting & Stalin. • Truman continued FDR’s policies with USSR. • At conference, Truman is told of successful atomic test, brags to Stalin. • Stalin knew, due to spies, already stealing atomic secrets.
Truman pushed hard on Polish elections. • Free & open world good for US economy. • Soviets wanted satellite nations to act as buffer zone to protect USSR. • Subject to Soviet control. • When “free” elections occurred, Polish communists “won”. • During end of/right after WWII, USSR expanded quickly into satellite nations. • In Albania Communist guerrillas pushed out Nazis, took control, joined USSR in 1944. • 1944-USSR rolled into Bulgaria, added to USSR in 1948.
Czechoslovakia-Communists replaced all police w/ Party members. • Held strikes, rallies, open rebellion until nation caved in 1948, joined USSR. • In Hungary, Red Army remained after war ended, arrested anti-Communists, held elections, Communists won. • Romania-forced king to name Communist Prime Minister, P.M. pushed king out in 1947. • Yugoslavia became Communist under Marshall Tito, refused to take orders from Stalin, remained independent. • Finland signed treaty with USSR, remained neutral in foreign affairs, could manage own domestic affairs.
When Germany divided, USSR had control of East Germany (German Democratic Republic). • Established strict Communist control, totalitarian gov’t. • All of these nations would remain under Soviet control until late 1980s. • USSR would take any steps to maintain control.
The “Iron Curtain” • February 1946-Stalin predicted victory of Communism over capitalism. • Called on Communists worldwide to spread Communist system. • Established Cominformto coordinate Communist activities. • March 1946-Churchill responded in Fulton, Missouri. • Gave Iron Curtain speech-condemned division of Europe, condemned Communism. • Speeches are considered start of Cold War. • War of political philosophies, economics.
Containment/Truman Doctrine • US & USSR knew Communism & capitalism could not peacefully coexist. • USSR would attempt to expand at every turn • Led to US policy of containment. • Eastern Europe is lost, must keep USSR from spreading any further.
First battle of Cold War – Turkey. • Threatened by USSR takeover, UK could not afford to provide aid, asked USA to help. • Truman spoke to Congress, stated that US must use any means “…to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation…”. • Became the Truman Doctrine. • Help nations resist Communism. • Congress voted $400 million aid to Greece, Turkey to prevent Communist expansion. • First battle of Cold War was US victory.
The Marshall Plan • US knew it could not become isolationist after WWII. • Needed to keep western Europe out of Communist hands. • 1947-Secretary of State George Marshall created Marshall Plan. • European nations to draw up plans for recovery from WWII. • US would finance recovery efforts. • Would create strong democracies & open markets. • USSR invited to participate, refused. • 1948-52-US spent $13 billion in Europe.
The Berlin Airlift • 1948-Four German zones merged into two. • West Germany (Federal Republic of Germany)-supported by England, France, USA. • East Germany (German Democratic Republic)-controlled by USSR. • Berlin, in E. Germany, also divided. • West Berlin part of West Germany, East Berlin part of East Germany. • Hundreds of thousands in E. Germany fled into West Berlin, from there into W. Germany, W. Europe, USA. • Stalin angry over exodus.
West Germany East Germany
Stalin wanted to force Western powers out of W. Berlin. • 1948-West Germany introduced new currency. • Stalin used this as excuse to blockade West Berlin. • All shipments through East Germany banned. • 2.5 million in West Berlin threatened with starvation. • Truman began Berlin Airlift to move supplies. • 15 months, 200,000 flights from West Germany to West Berlin moving food, fuel, medicine, supplies. • 13,000 tons flown in daily. • May 1949-Stalin lists blockade, flights end in Sept. • By this time, Marshall Plan has achieved stability in W. Europe.
Cold War Alliances • UN was supposed to keep peace. • USSR constantly vetoed actions to promote stability. • Western nations realized new alliances needed for security. • April 1949- Canada, US, Belgium, UK, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal join together. • Create NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization). • Used collective security-an attack on one is an attack on all. • 1955-USSR forms Warsaw Pact-military alliance among USSR & Soviet satellites.
Communist Successes • 1949 saw two major communist successes. • Sept. 1949-USSR exploded 1st atomic bomb. • Any war could now go nuclear. • 1950-Truman authorized development of hydrogen bomb, more powerful than existing atomic weapons. • First thermonuclear test in 1952 at Bikini Atoll. • US began to prep for nuclear war. • Civil defense, bomb shelters, nuclear drills.