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The Cold War Begins

The Cold War Begins

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The Cold War Begins

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  1. The Cold War Begins Ch. 19, Sec 1, 2

  2. In meetings, FDR underestimated Stalin. • Believed he could control him; very wrong. • Even though US & USSR were allies during war, political systems were radically different, could not get along. • US supported anti-Communists in Russian Revolution, refused to recognize Communist gov’t until 1933. • Stalin angry at time it took for US/UK to invade Europe while Russians died. • US angry over nonaggression pact Stalin signed w/ Hitler. • As war came to an end, tension between allies grew.

  3. Yalta Conference • First problems emerged. • Stalin demanded Germany pay $20 billion reparations to USSR. • FDR, Churchill refused. • FDR asked Stalin to enter war against Japan; Stalin refused until offered control of 2 Japanese islands. • Stalin wanted control of Poland to prevent another invasion; FDR, Churchill demanded legal elections. • Stalin eventually agreed, but elections never occurred. • All agreed on creation of United Nations.

  4. Truman • April 12, 1945-FDR died in Warm Springs, GA. • Vice-President Harry S Truman now President. • Unprepared, but learned quickly. • July 1945-Potsdam Conference-Truman’s first meeting & Stalin. • Truman continued FDR’s policies with USSR. • At conference, Truman is told of successful atomic test, brags to Stalin. • Stalin knew, due to spies, already stealing atomic secrets.

  5. Truman pushed hard on Polish elections. • Free & open world good for US economy. • Soviets wanted satellite nations to act as buffer zone to protect USSR. • Subject to Soviet control. • When “free” elections occurred, Polish communists “won”. • During end of/right after WWII, USSR expanded quickly into satellite nations. • In Albania Communist guerrillas pushed out Nazis, took control, joined USSR in 1944. • 1944-USSR rolled into Bulgaria, added to USSR in 1948.

  6. Czechoslovakia-Communists replaced all police w/ Party members. • Held strikes, rallies, open rebellion until nation caved in 1948, joined USSR. • In Hungary, Red Army remained after war ended, arrested anti-Communists, held elections, Communists won. • Romania-forced king to name Communist Prime Minister, P.M. pushed king out in 1947. • Yugoslavia became Communist under Marshall Tito, refused to take orders from Stalin, remained independent. • Finland signed treaty with USSR, remained neutral in foreign affairs, could manage own domestic affairs.

  7. Czechoslovakia

  8. Hungary

  9. Romania

  10. Yugoslavia

  11. Finland

  12. When Germany divided, USSR had control of East Germany (German Democratic Republic). • Established strict Communist control, totalitarian gov’t. • All of these nations would remain under Soviet control until late 1980s. • USSR would take any steps to maintain control.

  13. East Germany

  14. The “Iron Curtain” • February 1946-Stalin predicted victory of Communism over capitalism. • Called on Communists worldwide to spread Communist system. • Established Cominformto coordinate Communist activities. • March 1946-Churchill responded in Fulton, Missouri. • Gave Iron Curtain speech-condemned division of Europe, condemned Communism. • Speeches are considered start of Cold War. • War of political philosophies, economics.

  15. Containment/Truman Doctrine • US & USSR knew Communism & capitalism could not peacefully coexist. • USSR would attempt to expand at every turn • Led to US policy of containment. • Eastern Europe is lost, must keep USSR from spreading any further.

  16. First battle of Cold War – Turkey. • Threatened by USSR takeover, UK could not afford to provide aid, asked USA to help. • Truman spoke to Congress, stated that US must use any means “…to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation…”. • Became the Truman Doctrine. • Help nations resist Communism. • Congress voted $400 million aid to Greece, Turkey to prevent Communist expansion. • First battle of Cold War was US victory.

  17. The Marshall Plan • US knew it could not become isolationist after WWII. • Needed to keep western Europe out of Communist hands. • 1947-Secretary of State George Marshall created Marshall Plan. • European nations to draw up plans for recovery from WWII. • US would finance recovery efforts. • Would create strong democracies & open markets. • USSR invited to participate, refused. • 1948-52-US spent $13 billion in Europe.

  18. The Berlin Airlift • 1948-Four German zones merged into two. • West Germany (Federal Republic of Germany)-supported by England, France, USA. • East Germany (German Democratic Republic)-controlled by USSR. • Berlin, in E. Germany, also divided. • West Berlin part of West Germany, East Berlin part of East Germany. • Hundreds of thousands in E. Germany fled into West Berlin, from there into W. Germany, W. Europe, USA. • Stalin angry over exodus.

  19. West Germany East Germany

  20. Stalin wanted to force Western powers out of W. Berlin. • 1948-West Germany introduced new currency. • Stalin used this as excuse to blockade West Berlin. • All shipments through East Germany banned. • 2.5 million in West Berlin threatened with starvation. • Truman began Berlin Airlift to move supplies. • 15 months, 200,000 flights from West Germany to West Berlin moving food, fuel, medicine, supplies. • 13,000 tons flown in daily. • May 1949-Stalin lists blockade, flights end in Sept. • By this time, Marshall Plan has achieved stability in W. Europe.

  21. Cold War Alliances • UN was supposed to keep peace. • USSR constantly vetoed actions to promote stability. • Western nations realized new alliances needed for security. • April 1949- Canada, US, Belgium, UK, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal join together. • Create NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization). • Used collective security-an attack on one is an attack on all. • 1955-USSR forms Warsaw Pact-military alliance among USSR & Soviet satellites.

  22. Communist Successes • 1949 saw two major communist successes. • Sept. 1949-USSR exploded 1st atomic bomb. • Any war could now go nuclear. • 1950-Truman authorized development of hydrogen bomb, more powerful than existing atomic weapons. • First thermonuclear test in 1952 at Bikini Atoll. • US began to prep for nuclear war. • Civil defense, bomb shelters, nuclear drills.

  23. Soviet Bomb