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ACT PREP . September 16. Tonight’s Agenda. Grammar & Mechanical Skills Review. 1. Basic Grammar & Mechanics Review. As we go through each of these topics, rate yourself on the following scale. Your goal is to identify at least three areas of weakness. Rating Scale:

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  1. ACT PREP September 16

  2. Tonight’s Agenda • Grammar & Mechanical Skills Review

  3. 1. Basic Grammar & Mechanics Review • As we go through each of these topics, rate yourself on the following scale. Your goal is to identify at least three areas of weakness. • Rating Scale: 1 = I totally know this. 2 = I am sort of comfortable with this. 3 = I really need to work on this.

  4. p.46: The Basic Parts of Speech • Noun (person, animal, plant, object, time, place, or idea.) • Examples________________________ • Pronoun (substitute for a noun) • Examples _______________________ • Verb (activity, change, feeling or existence) • Examples________________________ • Modifier (gives detail to noun and verb) • Examples _______________________ • Conjunction (joins ideas together) • Examples _______________________ • Preposition (shows the relationship between an idea and a noun) • Examples _______________________

  5. p.50: Common Grammatical Errors • Subject-Verb Agreement • The books is on the shelf. • Pronoun Usage • The teacher told John that he thought his work was improving. • John and him were chosen. • Checklist for pronoun agreement: • Must have an antecedent to which it refers • Must refer CLEARLY to this antecedent • The pronoun and antecedent must agree • The pronoun must have the proper case.

  6. p.50: Common Grammatical Errors • Adjectives vs. Adverbs • He played very quick. • The teacher gave a quick explanation. • Double Negatives • He didn’t eat hardly nothing. • Nouns & Noun Clauses • I saw in the bulletin where Mrs. Wagner’s retirement was announced.

  7. p.71: Analyzing Sentence Structure • Run-on Sentences • The class was boring I almost fell asleep. • Faulty Parallelism • I was concerned about the price of the car and if it was comfortable. • I was concerned about the price and the comfort of the car. • Incomplete Split Constructions • Baseball is as important, if not more important than, football. • Baseball is as important as, if not more important than, football. • Verb Tense • When he spoke, all the people cheer him.

  8. p.87: Problems of Logical Expression • Faulty/Illogical Comparisons • Mary is the shorter of all of her friends. • This is the most sharpest knife I have. • Sequence & Verb Tense • Charles came to town last week and goes to a resort where he rests for three days. • Unintended meaning • The tall teacher’s son played basketball.

  9. p.87: Problems of Logical Expression • Conciseness (Avoiding Awkward/Wordy Sentences) • The teacher, having finished the day’s lesson, let us leave class early. • The prolonged debate about the candidates continued for a long time. • Misplaced Modifiers • Stuffed with dressing and baked to a golden hue, Aunt Debbie served her famous holiday turkey. • Consider the differences in meaning: • Only he kissed her. • He only kissed her. • He kissed only her.

  10. p.96: Idioms & Clarity of Expression • Common list of acceptable idioms (p. 81) • Using the correct prepositions: • Are you from about here? • Inappropriate diction: • There are less students here than last year. • Confusing Word Groups: p. 84-87 • Affect/Effect • Desert/Dessert • Conscience/Conscious • Principal/Principle

  11. p.104: Low-Level Usage Instead of: Say: ain’t is not bunch of group of different than different from have got have having took having taken kind of somewhat

  12. p.113: Punctuation—The dreaded Comma! • RULES TO LIVE BY: • Always use a comma before a coordinating conjunction! Ex: I was tired but I went to the movies anyway. • Use commas to add clarity.Ex: Inside the people were dancing. • Use commas to separate adjectives, words in a series, and nouns in a direct address. Ex: I think Joe that you are a wise charming man.

  13. MORE dreaded commas! 4. Use commas to separate quotations and introductory phrases! Ex: In 1998 Bill said “I love horses.” 5. Use PAIRS of commas to set off certain elements of a sentence: Ex: The book I am sure was returned to the library. 6. Use commas to separate dates, addresses, and specific locations! Ex: On Friday June 12, 2006 I moved to 22 Jo Ann Dr. in O’Fallon Missouri.

  14. Punctuation…Continued • Semicolons • He waited at the station for over an hour however no one appeared. • Colons • We played volleyball, football, and tag. • My question is this: Are you going to the mall tonight? • Quotation Marks • Jane said There will be many people at the party. • He said that he would be happy to attend the meeting. • Apostrophes • Lady’s = belonging to the lady • Laides’ = belonging to the ladies • The Johnsons’ house.

  15. Capitalization and Spelling • Capitalization • Let’s visit Uncle Harry. • I have three uncles. • I am enrolled in English, math, history, and French. • Spelling • “I before E” grieve, relief, chief, receive, deceive, receipt, neighbor, • Stop -> stopped, commit -> committing, etc.

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