Project & Quality Management • Day 3 Technology • Project Management
Syllabus Core: PQM • Three main topics • Project Management • Quality Management • Reliability Management
Structure of the Presentation Project Management • Overview of project management, • Project planning; • Work Breakdown Structure, • The Gantt Chart, • Network Diagram, • Critical Path Diagram, • Project planning for Technology projects, • Using Microsoft Project to generate charts.
What is Project Management? • A set of techniques used for managing projects • Origins in industry - large projects • Bridge Building • New Product Development • Road Building
What is a Project? • “Any task within an organisation that does not fit neatly into ‘business-as-usual’” • Port Tunnel • Luas • Development of New Engine • Set up a Quality System in Company • Technology Design & Make project.
What is a Project? • Projects have the following characteristics: • Each project is specific and unique. • Each project has a specific deliverable item when complete. • This deliverable is aimed at meeting a specific need or purpose. • There is usually a specific due datefor completion of the project. • Design is not necessarily a central part of the project activity.
What is Managed? • PM focuses on the management of resources and time in a systematic manner. • The administration of the project • The supervision of the project • The organisation of the project
What is Managed? • For the student it means: • Analysing the objectives of the project, • Defining the tasks needed to achieve these objectives, • Controlling the execution of them.
Who manages the projeect? • Large projects usually involve a project team.
What do Project Managers do? • Projects have 3 objectives, • Finish on time. • Meet the specifications that satisfy • the brief. • Meet the budget. • Students are the project managers of their own tasks!
Importance of Planning • Unexpected events may happen during the • project and may cause delays. • Breakdown of machinery, • Problems with resources/supplies, • Labour shortages, etc. • Project planning can minimise the effect of these unexpected delays.
Project Planning • What is a project plan? • Can be as simple as a list of sequences for a small project • Can be more complex with charts, tables, costings etc. for a larger project
Project Planning • Analyse the brief, • List the steps involved, • Draw up a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). • A WBS is a diagram that shows • Primary Tasks • Sub-Tasks
Example • Draw up a Work Breakdown Structure for the erection of a garden shed. • The shed will come prefabricated but will need to be assembled. • A foundation will need to be prepared in advance.
Place order forshed Garden Shed Buy Blocks and Cement Prepare Foundation Assemble Shed when it arrives WBSforGardenShed
The Gantt Chart – a Preview • A Gantt Chart is a horizontal bar chart showing the times for each task
Looking at the Gantt Chart • Delivery time for the shed is nine days, • One day for buying materials, • Two days for making the foundation, • One day for assembly. • Note: • Making the foundation is timed so that it is ready just in time for the delivery of the shed • Could have been completed at an earlier date if desired.
Day 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Order Shed from Supplier Buy Blocks Build Foundation Assemble Exercises • Redraw the Gantt chart so that the maximum amount of time is allowed for the curing of the foundation.
Exercises • Shown is a picture of a Christmas Tree Star • Draw a WBS for the Star • Draw a Gantt chart for manufacturing the Star
WBS for Star Mark Out Drill Cut Out & File Structure Sub Task Assemble Test Star Sub Task Solder Circuit Circuit
Gantt Chart for Star Day 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Mark Out Drill Cut Out & File Solder Circuit Assemble Test
Network Diagrams • For larger or more complex projects a network diagram is required. • Network Diagrams show: • The relationships between the tasks, • 2. The sequence in which each task is performed, • 3. The interdependencies between the tasks.
Drawing up a Network Diagram • Start with task list and draw up a WBS • Decide on the order of tasks WBS Network Diagram Gantt Chart
Sample WBS A WBS needs to be analysed and redrawn frequently to arrive at the best production sequence. (Use ‘Post its’)
Network Table The tasks and theirpredecessorscan be drawn as a table
Part Complete Network Diagram Note that task C has A as a predecessor D and E have B as predecessors. A and B have no predecessors and are connected to the starting node.
Complete Network Diagram Exercise:Complete the diagram using the remainder of the tasks
Network Diagram for Garden Shed • Draw up a network diagram for the garden shed project described previously.
Some Definitions and Terms • Terms used for network diagrams: • Activity – A task or set of tasks required by the project. • Network – Diagram of nodes representing activities connected by directional arrows that defines the project and shows the relations between all of the activities. Networks are usually drawn with a ‘Start’ node on the left and a ‘Finish’ node on the right. • Path – A series of connected activities in the network • Critical Path – the set of activities on a path from the project’s start event to its finish event that if delayed, will delay the completion date of the project. • Critical Time – The time required to complete all activities on the critical path.
Adding Times to the Network Diagram • Duration of each task can be added to network diagram • From this, start and finish times can be found for each task • Some tasks can be allowed to vary their start and finish times without affecting overall time taken
Example Consider the following project
Adding Further Information • We can add the following information to each node in the diagram: • Earliest Start Time (EST) • Earliest Finish Time (EFT) • Latest Start Time (LST) • Latest Finish Time (LFT)
Critical Path Diagram • Critical path in orange • See notes for a detailed explanation
Conclusions from Critical Path Diagram • Critical path is path that requires the most time (A-E-H-J) • Critical time is 21 days which is the earliest possible completion time • Any delay on critical path will delay the project • Some delay (within limits) can be tolerated on other tasks.
Critical Path Diagram for the Garden Shed • Complete the critical path diagram for the garden shed • State critical path and critical time
Solution • CP: Order Shed – Assemble • CT= 10 Days
CalculatingActivitySlack Slack or Float is the amount of time a non-critical task can be delayed Slack = Latest Finish Time – Earliest Finish Time or Latest Start Time – Earliest Start Time Slack = LFT-EFT = LST-EST
SlackTimes from Shed Example • Both non-critical tasks have a slack of • (9-3)=(7-1)=(7-1)=(6-0) = 6 days
The Gantt Chart • Generated from network diagram • Gives visual representation of activities and times • Gantt charts can show: • Timeline for each task • Dependencies of tasks • Critical path
Network Diagram • Using the Network Diagram from previous example
Application of PM to Tech. Projects • Now we will apply the techniques we have met to a hypothetical LC project. • The procedure for project work is: • List the tasks and sub-tasks involved • Draw up a WBS • Draw up a Network Table • Draw up a Network Diagram • Insert times and determine the Critical Path
Consider the following project brief • Design and manufacture a personal alarm that will incorporate an electronic circuit as well as a suitable casing • From analysing the brief: • General plan on how to approach the project • Identify the main tasks involved • Derive a Work Breakdown Schedule • Draw up a Network Diagram • Add times and find the critical path, critical time and slack for the activities.
A possible WBS for the project Research Circuit Design Circuit Order Components Circuit Sub Task Manufacture & Assemble Test Personal Alarm Sub Task Casing User Survey Design Specification Design Casing Order Materials
Network Table • First draw up a list of tasks and preceding tasks
Network Diagram 7 7