Objectives • Understand how emotion is defined and studied in psychology.
Theories of Emotions • James-Lange • physiological change emotion • separate reactions for each emotion • Schachter & Singer 2 factor • physiological change cognitive appraisal emotion • Interpretation of the situation leads to emotion • Cannon Bard - simultaneous
Objectives • Compare cultural similarities and differences in human emotion. • Distinguish between universal expressions of emotions and culturally-shaped expressions of emotions.
Emotions & Culture • Evolutionary basis to experiencing the same physiological responses • BUT culture & belief systems affect interpretation & therefore the labeled emotion
Microexpressions • https://face.paulekman.com/face/site/training.aspx
Objectives • Describe how culture affects: • the kinds and strength of emotions we experience • the emotion that we display • the emotions that we value
Emotional Display • Participants: 151 Americans (mixed racially), 173 Russians, 78 Japanese • Emotions: happiness, anger, sadness, contempt, disgust, surprise • Audience: friends, colleagues, family, strangers • Display: express, control (nothing), de-amplify, amplify, mask (smile), qualify (express + smile)
Emotional Display • Happiness, surprise: Express to family, amplify to friends • Anger: De-amplify, show least to stranger • Sadness: Mask, show least to strangers • Contempt, disgust: Control, show least to strangers
Emotional Display • Control: Russians > Japanese > U.S. • With family & friends, no difference with strangers • Russians control happiness, fear & disgust, Japanese control surprise, contempt, Americans control disgust, anger, & contempt but not as much as others
Emotional Intensity • Relationship bt. expressing and feeling? • Facial Feedback hypothesis • Lab studies of facial expressions • Body posture
Emotional Intensity • After feeling an emotion you can: • Express • Suppress and ruminate • Distract • Reappraise • Reappraising emotions (exercise) • Instead of, "Sue's deliberately trying to make me look bad," think "Sue must be having a bad day." Instead of "How dare you cut me off, you homicidal idiot!" think "Maybe that driver didn't see me."
Value of Emotion • Negative vs. positive emotions • Strong & passionate displays • Emotional “smoothness” • Relationship between cultural preference and expectations, our own expectations, and our interpretations
Objectives • Describe the differences seen in cultural evaluations of happiness and well-being.
Happiness • What is happiness? • Research on positive emotions • Americans perceive individual emotion more positively, Japanese perceive group emotion more positively • In one day, Americans and Japanese experience same # of negative emotions, but Americans experience more positive emotions
Happiness • Happiness cross-culturally • Flow http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/en/mihaly_csikszentmihalyi_on_flow.html • 3 kinds of happiness • http://www.ted.com/talks/martin_seligman_on_the_state_of_psychology.html
Life Satisfaction • $ can decrease unhappiness, but doesn’t increase happiness • Different kinds of happiness are not equally related to life satisfaction
Danger - Positive Thinking • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u5um8QWWRvo&feature=player_embedded