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LTE , LTE Advanced And Beyond

LTE , LTE Advanced And Beyond. Umar Iqbal Supervisor: Prof. Jyri Hämäläinen Instructor: InamUllah. April 2014. Outline. Background Objective Long Term Evolution LTE Technologies LTE Advanced Technologies Beyond LTE - Advanced Conclusions References. Background.

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LTE , LTE Advanced And Beyond

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  1. LTE , LTE Advanced And Beyond • UmarIqbal • Supervisor: Prof. JyriHämäläinen • Instructor: InamUllah • April 2014

  2. Outline • Background • Objective • Long Term Evolution • LTE Technologies • LTE Advanced Technologies • Beyond LTE - Advanced • Conclusions • References

  3. Background • History of mobile communication can be traced back from 1895 but the practical mobile communication started with introduction of first generation mobile network (1G) in 1978. 02/04/2014

  4. Background . 02/04/2014

  5. Objective Reserch Objective : • To provide the review of all the advancments in Cellular networks. • Different Technologies adopted to improve the cellular communication. • Future work in mobile networks.

  6. Long Term Evolution (LTE) 1/3 • Long Term Evolution (LTE) • In 2004 3GPP started a project named as LTE, to improve the mobile phone standards and meet the future demands • Next Generation mobile broadband technology • Based on UMTS 3G technology • Optimized for All-IP traffic

  7. Long Term Evolution (LTE) 2/3 Requirements Of LTE • Peak Data Rate : 100 Mbps in downlink and 50 Mbps in Uplink within a 20 MHz spectrum allocation • Spectrum Allocation : E-UTRA to operate in 1.4, 3 ,5, 10, 15 and 20 MHz allocation. Hence allowing different possibilities for re-farming already in use spectrum in uplink and downlink. Also Compatibility with the existing 2G, 3G and non 3GPP systems around the word. • Latency : Low latency for control plane and user plane, below 5 ms • Coverage : Improve the Cell edge performance . Achieve the target throughput, spectral efficiency and mobility for the 5 km radius cell • Spectrum efficiency : LTE aims for 3 to 4 times spectrum efficiency in the downlink of Release 6 HSDPA and 2 to 3 times spectrum efficiency in uplink as that of Release 6 HSUPA [9]. • Mobility : LTE support low speed and high speed mobility across the network. Low speed 0-15km/h and high speed 15-120km/h 02/04/2014

  8. Long Term Evolution (LTE) 3/3 • IP based Architecture : Only Packet switched Network (All IP Solution) which reduces the signaling as well as minimizing the system complexity for user equipment (UE) and network for improved stability. • Self –organizing Network (SON) : To reduce the cost , LTE aim to be a self-organizing network by which it will be able to self-configure the network and self-optimize the network hence saving the cost of optimization and network planning • Closed Subscriber Group (CSG) : limit the users that can access the base station (eNB) within a specific cell . 02/04/2014

  9. LTE System Architecture 1/2 • LTE network architecture aims to reduce the complexity, cost and implementation of all IP based network • LTE deploys a Flat Architecture • LTE has evolved radio access network known as E-UTRAN while non-radio aspects evolution was names as System Architecture Evolution (SAE) 02/04/2014

  10. LTE System Architecture 2/2 • E-UTRAN : Radio Resource Control (RRC) control , Radio Link Control (RLC) and Packet Data Convergence , Mobility management, Radio Resource management, header compression, ARQ, HARQ, ciphering, deciphering and scheduling of the User plane data for reliable delivery of packets • Evolved Packet Core :  It consist of • MME (Mobility Management Entity) • SAE (P-GW, S-GW) (System Architecture Evolution) • PCRF (Policy and Charging Rules Function) • HSS (Home Subscriber Server) 02/04/2014

  11. LTE Technologies • Multiple Access Technology • LTE employs OrthogonalFrequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) for downlink data transmission • and Single Carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA) for uplink transmission • OFDMA refers to simultaneously supporting multiple users by assigning them specific subchannels for • intervals of time .OFDMA cope with severe channel conditions ( attenuation, narrowband interference and • frequency-selective fading due to multipath) without complex equalization filters • Improves spectral efficiency, Reduce ISI effect by multipath, Provide better Protection against frequency • selective fading. • SC-FDMA is a new single carrier multiple access technique which has similar structure and • performance to OFDMA used in uplink transmission. It reduces the Peak to average power ratio also • increase the battery life of the UE terminal 02/04/2014

  12. LTE Technologies 2/2 • Multiple Antenna Technique : • Multiple antennas increases the throughput and efficiency of the system. In LTE it is used in two different • forms such as SU-MIMO , or MU-MIMO • Two Modes of Deployment : Spatial Multiplexing , Transmit Diversity 02/04/2014

  13. LTE -Advanced • Requirements Of LTE-Advanced • Peak Data Rate : LTE-A provides Peak data rate of 1Gbps (for low mobility ) in DL and 500Mbps in • UL by using advanced MIMO schemes • Spectral Efficiency :LTE-A targets to achieve peak spectrum efficiency of 30bps/Hz in DL and 15bps/Hz in UL • Mobility : LTE-A supports mobility from 350km/h to 500 Km/h depending upon the frequency band used • by the operator • Bandwidth : LTE-A supports wider bandwidth and asymmetrical bandwidth up to 100 MHZ (max UL+DL) . • It uses carrier aggregation for wider bandwidth and spectrum aggregation higher bandwidth • CoMP :Coordinated Multipoint Transmission and Reception • Relaying • HetNets :Support for heterogeneous networks is a multiple layer deployment scheme which aims to achieve • the peak data rate and increase the network capacity. 02/04/2014

  14. LTE –Advanced Technologies Carrier Aggregation • In CA multiple component carriers (bandwidths defined in LTE R8/9) are combined on the physical layer to achieve the target bandwidth. The aggregated bandwidth is used by LTE-A terminals to achieve the target data rate while LTE terminals recognize each component carrier as a single LTE carrier in this way its backward compatible with LTE • There are 3 types of carrier aggregation . • Intra-band contiguous • Intra-band non contiguous • Inter-band 02/04/2014

  15. LTE –Advanced Technologies • Relay Nodes: • Relay nodes are low powered base station that proved enhanced coverage and capacity at the cell edge • It can be used to connect remote areas without have fiber connection. • When the RN is deployed inside a cell area of an eNB is known as DonereNB (DeNB). • There are two radio links used by RN, Access Link is between RN and UE, and Backhaul link / Relay link is • between RN and eNB • There are 2 types of 3GPP standardized Relay nodes • Type 1 : Transmit its own CELL ID , transmit synchronization channel information , reference signal and physical control channel to the UE’s in its region. Performs RRM based on the local information. • Type 2 : Do not transmit cell it , transparent to user , User data transmitted through RN , while control information transmitted by eNB 02/04/2014

  16. LTE –Advanced Technologies • Heterogeneous Network • Itis also known as network of networks. It consist of Macro cell , Micro cell Pico cells and Femto cells • In HetNets macro cell coverage area is densified by adding low power Nodes. Hence improving coverage and capacity of the network. • Increase Network Capacity and Enhance User Experience. • Range Expansion allow more users to benefit from small cells 02/04/2014

  17. Beyond LTE-Advanced • Beyond LTE-Advanced cellular network is also know as 5G. • Some of the possible candidate technologies of 5G are • Machine Type Communication • Ultra Dense Network • Device to Device Communication 02/04/2014

  18. Beyond LTE-Advanced • Machine Type Communication • Current mobile networks are designed for Human to machine or human to human communication • Telephony • SMS • MMS • MTC network may consist of little or no human interaction • Large number of connected devices • Small amount of data per session . • There are 3 scenarios of Machine type communication depending upon the location of MTC server 02/04/2014

  19. Beyond LTE-Advanced Scenario 1 Scenario 2 Scenario 3 02/04/2014

  20. Beyond LTE-Advanced • Ultra Dense Network • Also known as Hyper densifiedHetNet. • Improving the coverage and capacity of network can solve the problem of increased data traffic. • It brings the network closer to user (basestation) thus improving the signal to interference and noise ratio • Neighboring Small Cell (NSC) is hyper densifiedHetNet, allowing hybrid/open access to all the users . 02/04/2014

  21. Beyond LTE-Advanced • NSCs can serve the users indoor as well as outdoor even when placed indoor by the using SON providing seamless connectivity, coverage and mobility to the users • Deployment of inside out increase the capacity up to 500x with 9 % deployment while 1000x with 20% deployment while using 10 times more spectrum. • Authorized shared access (ASA) and Extension of LTE to unlicensed can help reach the 1000x target throughput

  22. Beyond LTE-Advanced Device to Device Communication • D2D communication can be considered as simple form of Machine Type Communication as in D2D there is a single hop communication while in MTC there are multiple devices involved in communication • D2D communication can help offloading the traffic from the network hence improving the efficiency of the network and commutation between UE • D2D is used as underlying technology for LTE –advanced , so even devices communicate directly they are still controlled by eNB. • D2D communication is classified in two types depending upon the spectrum they use for D2D link

  23. Beyond LTE-Advanced

  24. Conclusion • LTE-Advanced meets the performance requirements set by ITU-R for IMT-Advanced and altogether it is an evolution of LTE and not a new system in itself • LTE –Advanced Terminals are backward compaitable with LTE network • New Technology such Carrier Aggregation technology, for both contiguous and non-contiguous spectrum, would support bandwidth up to 100MHz and also enable a more flexible , spectrum utilization, • MIMO( Multiple input Multiple output) technique can improve the spectral efficiency in UL and Downlink • COMP is a evolution to ICIC which can improve the LTE-A system efficiency . • Cell edge performance and coverage can be improved by deployment of relay nodes. • MTC and D2D are good step for the future as they can reduce the system traffic load on network hence improving the performance of network • Ultra Dense Networks will improve the coverage , capacity and throughput of the network as w ell as addition of unlicensed spectrum to the current LTE will open new boundaries of communication

  25. References • HarriHolma, AnttiToskala “LTE for UMTS: Evolution to LTE-Advanced” John Wiley and Sons Ltd , 2nd Edition 2011 • [NTT Docomo “NTT TESTS LTE ADVANCED “ available at http://www.dailywireless.org/2011/02/07/ntt-tests-lte-advanced/ • Ian F. Akyildiz, David M. Gutierrez-Estevez, Elias Chavarria Reyes : “ The evolution to 4G cellular systems” : LTE-Advanced , Physical communications volume 3 issue 4 , page 217-244, December 2010 • 3GPP R1-084424, “Control Channel Design Issues for Carrier Aggregation in LTE-A” Motorola, Nov. 2008 • Rohde & Schwarz “Introduction to LTE Advanced Technology” Available at http://cdn.rohde-schwarz.com/dl_downloads/dl_application/application_notes/1ma169/1MA169_3e_LTE-Advanced_technology.pdf • D.M.Gutierrez-Estevez, E.C. Reyes I. F. Akyildiz, "The Evolution to 4G Cellular Systems: LTE Advanced," Physical Communication, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 217 - 244, 2010 • M.Ding and H.Luo “Multi-Point cooperative Communication : Theory and applications, Signals and systems technology”  Shanghai Jiao Tong University Press 2013 • Juniper network “Machine to Machine –The rise of machines” white paper 2011 • Cisco Networks, “Cisco Visual Networking Index: Global Mobile Data Traffic Forecast Update 2011-2016,” June 2012. Available at : http://www.cisco.com/en/US/netsol/ns827/networking_solutions_sub_solution.html 02/04/2014

  26. Thank You Questions? 02/04/2014

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