Star of the SeaPrimary School All day 4 day 4 Year-Old Kindergarten Option
Why? Brain Research Experience Economic factors Opportunity AEDI Mandate
Frequently Asked Questions? Is it compulsory? What if I cannot afford it? Will my child be disadvantaged by not attending? Will my child be advantaged by attending? If my child does not attend will we need to pay for the fourth day? Will there be any local research done on the benefits or otherwise of the fourth day? Will children develop an aversion or resistance to going to school if they are going four days? What will the children do on the 4th day. The future?
Research links • YouTube • Full Day Kindergarten • Charles Pascal • Jim Grieve • Alana Mitchell • Fraser Mustard • AEDI • Google • Fraser Mustard – “Early Childhood Development and Experience based brain development…: Nov 2006 • James Heckman • Trevor Parry
Experience-Based Brain development in the early years of life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life: 03-080 Health Learning Behaviour
03-013 The Hostage Brain , Bruce S. McEwen and Harold M. Schmeck, Jr., 1994.
04-039 Two Neurons RECIPIENT NEURON Axon Synapse SIGNAL-SENDING NEURON Dendrite
04-042 SENSING PATHWAYS
04-212 Sound Vision Smell Touch Proprioception Taste Neal Halfon
07-123 Brain Pathways “Higher levels of brain circuits depend on precise, reliable information from lower levels in order to accomplish their function. Sensitive periods for development of lower level circuits ends early in life. High level circuits remain plastic for a longer period.” Knudsen 2004
Synaptic Density 03-012 At Birth 6 Years Old 14 Years Old Rethinking the Brain, Families and Work Institute, Rima Shore, 1997.
Human Brain Development – Language and Cognition 01-003 Language Sensing Pathways Higher (vision, hearing) Cognitive Function 9 -3 3 1 0 6 4 8 12 16 -6 Months Years Conception AGE C. Nelson, in From Neurons to Neighborhoods, 2000.
04-200 Early Child Development and Language Starts early – first 7 months Sets capability for mastering multiple languages Sets literacy and language trajectories
Vocabulary Growth – First 3 Years 02-001 Vocabulary 1200 High SES Middle SES 600 Low SES 0 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 Age - Months B. Hart & T. Risley, Meaningful Differences in Everyday Experiences of Young American Children, 1995
Levels of Literacy: A Reflection of ECD 08-022 Level 1: indicates persons with very poor skills. Level 2: people can deal with material that is simple. Level 3: is considered a suitable minimum for coping with the demands of everyday life. Level 4: people who demonstrate command of higher-order processing skills. Level 5: competence in sophisticated reading tasks, managing information and critical thinking skills.
06-114 Socioeconomic Gradients for Adult Document Literacy Scores Mean Scores 350 310 Intern’l Mean U.S. 270 Canada Australia 230 Sweden Finland 190 Chile 0 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 Parents’ Education (years) OECD, 2000
07-105 Allostasis & Allostatic Load (Stress) Limbic HPA Pathway
05-212 Limbic HPA Pathway - Stress Cortisol – Over Production Behaviour, depression, diabetes, malnutrition, cardiovascular disease, memory, immune system, drug and alcohol addiction Cortisol – Under Production Chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, immune system (autoimmune disorders) rheumatoid arthritis, allergies, asthma
Sensory Stimulus 03-002 Thalamus Cortex Amygdala Hippocampus - - + + Hypothalamus PVN Cortisol Cortisol CRF PIT ACTH Adrenal Cortex LeDoux, Synaptic Self
05-213 Stress Pathway and Sensory Stimuli Touch in the Early Period is Critical Rats – Mothers licking pups (High versus Low Grooming) Monkeys – Peer vs mother rearing Humans - Attachment
05-056 Individual differences in stress reactivity of the adult are determined by maternal behaviour during infancy HIGH Licking & Grooming LOW Licking & Grooming Development of Stress Reactivity Increased Stress Reactivity Increased Risk for Heart Disease, Type II Diabetes, Alcoholism, Affective Disorders, Brain Aging, etc. Modest Stress Reactivity Reduced Risk for Disease M. Szyf
08-014 Epigenetics The process by which normal gene expression is altered by experience. Genotype vs Phenotype
05-059 Hippocampal GR(17) Region 16 (5’ NGFI-A RE) Methylation Timeline 1.2 0.8 Licking Low Mean C-Methylation 0.4 Licking High 0 Embryo Day 20 Weaning Day 21 Pup Day 6 Adult Day 90 Birth Day 1 Age M. Szyf
Serotonin Transporter Gene Experience in Early Life - Depression Age 26 03-089 Depression Risk .70 SS S = Short Allele L = Long Allele .50 SL LL .30 No Abuse Moderate Abuse Severe Abuse Early Childhood A. Caspi, Science, 18 July 2003, Vol 301.
07-001 Early Experience and Brain Architecture and Function Affects gene expression and neural pathways Shapes emotion, regulates temperament and social development Shapes perceptual and cognitive ability Shapes physical and mental health and behaviour in adult life Shapes physical activity (e.g. skiing, swimming, etc.) Shapes language and literacy capability
EVIDENCE ABOUT ECD
05-115 Romanian Adoption Project Scores at 10.5 Years CB EA RO IQ 108 99 85 Language Score 106 99 88 Behaviour 13% 9% 43% CB - Canadian Born – middle class families EA - Early Adopted – middle class families RO - Romanian Orphanage – middle class families L. Le Mare
Healthy Brain Unhealthy Brain Front Back Normal Child Romanian Orphan Most Active Least Active
08-010 Romania – BEIP Project The cognitive outcome of children who remained in the orphanages was markedly below that of non orphanage children and children taken out of the orphanage and placed in foster care. Nelson et al. 2007. Science, v. 318
06-003 1958 British Birth Cohort Age 45 Cortisol pathway response correlates with ECD. Children with poor math skills at 7-16 years have dysfunctional cortisol secretion patterns at age 45. Power and Hertzman
05-231 High Scope – Age 40 Age 3 Early Child Development Program Program No Program % % Arrested 5+ times 36 53 Graduated High School 63 45 Earnings > $20K at age 40 60 40 Schweinhart, 2005
06-001 Success by Ten Early Child Development Intervene early Intervene often Intervene effectively Ludwig and Sawhill, Brookings Institution
07-055 What Provides the Best Results? Centre Based Programs that: Start Early Involve Parents Home Visiting Qualified Staff in Neuroscience and Development
Source of Brain Stimulation 99-004 parent-oriented child-oriented age 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Components of Early Childhood Development and Parenting Centres: ECD & care (parental and non-parental) arrangements Play-based learning Resources Prenatal & postnatal supports Nutrition programs
05-029 Early Child Development and Parenting Centres Offer from conception to school entry Provide support for parents Learn parenting by doing Provide non-parental care Link to and integrate with primary schools Detect development problems early
07-062 Staff Six Key Areas of Work • Quality of Adult Child Verbal Interaction • Touch & Adult Holding • Knowledge of Experience-Based Brain Development • Understanding that Appropriate Play is Problem-Based Learning • Helping Children’s Emotional Development • Helping Parents Learn Parenting in the Centre
03-116 OUTCOME MEASURES
Early Development Instrument (EDI) 03-085 Physical health and well-being Social knowledge and competence Emotional health/maturity Language and cognitive development Communication skills and general knowledge
07-027 Australia – AEDI Children 5-6 yrs. % Vulnerable 40 30 20 10 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q5 Q6 SES - Income
06-148 Vancouver EDI Numeracy # of % Failing % Not Passing Vulnerabilities Grade 4 Grade 4 0 7.5 12.3 1 11.8 22.2 2-3 18.7 33.8 4-5 27.5 55.6 Hertzman, HELP, 2006
07-161 Suburb AEDI and School Performance Suburb AEDI Tests Year 3 Students % Children Reading Writing Numeracy Vulnerable % below benchmark on One AEDI Test Port Augusta 43.1 27 43 33 * 16 32 23 ** Alberton 10.5 13.1 11.7 10 * 11.6 10.2 8 ** * includes exempted ** excludes exempted
07-204 Decrease in the % of vulnerable children as a result of improved ECD in Western Australia Year 2003 2006 Floreat 47.22% 14.3% Wembley 47.11% 11.8% AEDI
Vulnerable on 1 or more domains = 20% Vulnerable on 2 or more = 7%