Theory • Came to realize that one’s level of self insight was the single most predictor of behavior over family environment and social interactions. • Personality can only be understood from an individuals own viewpoint based on his / her subjective experiences • Clinical diagnoses have no other purpose that to make the therapist feel secure • As a result, the self (the sum total of the organism’s experiences) became the core of his theory of personality (as well as his counseling method)
Theory • Self actualization is one of the master motives of self • Self actualization is part of a larger process called the actualization tendency • The built in motivation present in every life-form to develop its potentials to the fullest extent possible • Starts at birth. • Encompasses all physiological and psychological needs and development
Theory • Chose the word self-actualizing rather than self-actualized to signify that development of self is on going and always in progress.
Theory • Our personal experiences are evaluated by how well they serve the actualization tendency through the process called the organismic valuing process • Those that hinder the self actualization process are assigned a negative value • Those that enhance actualization are evaluated as good and desirable and given a positive value • This influences behavior because most of us attempt to avoid negative things • It also allows us to be able to trust our feelings
Theory • The development of the self is a major manifestation of the actualizing tendency • Development of self involves the need for positive regard • Universal and persistent need for acceptance, love and approval from others (especially mother) • At first this is external from others, but becomes internal • Positive self regard: self esteem, self worth, and a positive self image
Theory • Ultimately, Roger’s felt everyone should be treated with unconditional positive regard (which promotes the actualization tendency) • Regard that is granted freely and fully • Not dependent on behavior • Should also be able to offer this to others and to ourselves
Theory • Society interferes though by offering conditional positive regard (introjection) • Regard is given under certain conditions • Can lead to conditional positive self-regard • Both override the organismic valuing process
Theory • The part of our being that is founded in the actualizing tendency, follows organismic valuing, and needs and receives positive regard and positive self regard is called the real self (I am). • Under conditional regard and conditional self regard we develop an ideal self (I should)
Theory • The gap between these two is called incongruity. • The more incongruent, the more neurotic • Stop using our organismic valuing process
Qualities of a Fully Functioning Person • Openness to experience • Fully aware and accepting of one’s experiences in the world, including one’s feelings • No experience is distorted or denied • Existential living • Capacity to experience life fully and richly, in the here and now as opposed to the past and future
Qualities of a Fully Functioning Person • Organismic trusting • Allow ourselves to be guided by the organismic valuing process and trust ourselves to do what feels right and comes natural. • Trust their own reactions rather than be guided by the opinions of others or by a social code • Assumes one is in contact with the actualizing tendency • Experiential freedom • We acknowledge our feeling of freedom in taking responsibility for our choices
Qualities of a Fully Functioning Person • Creativity • We contribute to the actualization of others through creativity in arts, sciences, social concern, etc. (generativity) • Also do not require predictability • Live in harmony with others • Practice reciprocal unconditional positive regard
Emerging Persons • Open and honest • Indifferent to material comforts and rewards • Caring • Deep distrust of cognitively based science and a technology that uses science to exploit and harm nature and people • Trust in their own experience and have a profound distrust of external authority
Why are you in psychology? How will you survive in psychology?
Survival skills • Be open to knowing yourself. • Set good boundaries. • Develop a support system. • Develop coping skills.