Reason for studying oriental fermented foods: Different from western foods(taste,texture,flavor and appearance.) microbiologicalydifferent from western foods: (mixed culture of yeast, bacteria, and mold.) cheap and nutritious: large number of people consume. too many things to modernize in plants. receiving increasing attention of western consumers.
hİghly nutritive because; Complementary effect of animal and plant proteins İncreased protein efficiency ratio and digestibility Synthesis of vitamins Shorter cooking time Desirable enzymes are produced
-dark -brown liquid, salty, pleasent aroma - made by fermenting soybean, wheat and salt with mold , yeast, and bacteria. -During fermentation enzymatic Proteins peptidies, aminoacids, sugar alcohols, acids carbohydrates are hydrolysed used as a seasoning agent
Japan leads soy sauce industry ( 1billion liters) Shoyu’ is the Japanese name for soy sauce.
Raw Materials and their treatment Soy Beans:defatted soybean Soy bean washed soaked overnight drained steamed (This will effect the future enzymatic action on soy proteins Wheat: Wheat roasted coarsely crushed. Adds color and flavor to resulting soy sauce and destroys surface microorganisms and facilitates enzymatic hdrolysis
Reason of using wheat: a precursor of sugar, alcohols, organic acids and flavor compounds. Wheat is rich in glutamic acid Salt NaCI gives salty taste, surpress undesirable organisms
Soy sauce koji: Koji: mold growth on cooked cereals or/and soybeans enzyme source made from a mixture of roasted wheat and steamed soybeans with A koji starter Aspergillus oryzae or A. soyae (Called tane koji)
Aspergillus oryzae Aspergillus oryzae on wheat
Preparation of tane koji: Polished rice…soaked in water…drained.. Steamed…mixed with 2% of wood ash, for trace elements …add A. oryzae spores .. Spread out in tray … cover with damp clothes … incubate at 30C for 5 days (green to yellowish spores of A. oryzae mycellium… spores are harvested dried at 50 C and stored at 15 C.
A good soy sauce: 18% salt, 4.6-4.8 pH Price is determined by: Nitrogen yield , Total soluble nitrogen Amino N /total soluble N: >50%is good) Color is due to non-enzymatic browning
Indonesian and the first “fast food”. In the first step the soybeans are soaked in water or acidified water at room temp.( partial germination) acid is produced ( pH drops from 6.5 to 4.5 ) ie L casei, The acid helps to prevent the growth of undesirable microorganisms
The bacteria produce vitamin B12 The most desirable bacterial species for this stage is K. pneumoniae The soaked beans are de-hulled, cooked, drained, cooled below 35 °C, and dusted with wheat flour, inoculated withRhizopus oligosporus
Defects include: (1) black patches due to fungal sporulation, (2) slime due to excessive bacterial growth ( too little O2 or a temp. of 42 °C) (3) a yellow color( due to toxic fungi. ) The yellow color indicates that the tempeh is highly toxic and it should not be eaten.
MISO (Bean paste) in Japan. like peanut butter (smooth, some chruncy) light-yellow to reddish-brown. used as flavoring agent, use in dips, salad dressing, sauces contains > 10% salt. (can be kept without refrigeration)
Japan Flavor resembles soy sauce İn the container Streptococcus and Pediococcus growth
Soy cheese : curd made from soymilk (tofu in English) similar process like cheese making The soymilk is curdled by adding coagulants (CaSO4, MgCl2, glucono-delta-lacton (GDL)). Pressed…Soft , Medium-soft and firm tofu
SUFU Sufu resembles cheese, Parmesan or Camembert and referred to as Chinese cheese. Sufu may satisfy cravings for cheese for individuals following a vegeterian diet.
Chineese originated food colorant • Washed and sterilized rice is inoculated with Monascus purpureus • 3 days( red), 3 weeks (deep purplish red) • Dry at 40 C
SAFETY OF ORIENAL FERMENTED FOODS Scientist can not find aflatoxin and aflatoxin producing cultures in oriental fermented foods unless they intentionally contaminate with these cultures. cooking, salting, acid formation, antibiotics production, and low moisture are the probable reasons for the safety of oriental fermented foods.
Mycotoxins - the yellowish colonies are of Aspergillus flavus, a producer of aflatoxin. The green colonies are of Penicillium, another mycotoxin-producing genus (ochratoxin, patulin, penitrem, PR toxin).
Shalgam: traditional lactic acid fermented beverage( black carrot (Daucus carota L), bulgur flour, sourdough, salt, turnip(Brassica rapa L), and water are used for production. ) It is a red coloured, cloudy and sour soft drink mainly consumed in southern Turkey people’s demands on functional foods made shalgam more and more popular
Carrot anthocyanin (eastern): traditionally grown in Turkey, Afghanistan, Egypt, Pakistan, and India carotene (western): grown WorldwideOrange-rooted carrots that are rich in carotenes (β-carotene is a precursor ofvitamin A), vitamin C and sugars, account for majority of production.
It is difficult to preserve carrot juice due to high pH and high risk of fermentation. lactofermented carrot juice could be produced using homofermentativeLABto give thejuice desirable taste and low pH.
black carrot • total sugar: 5.12–6.45 g/100 g. ( sucrose (1.20–3.31 g/100 g), • glucose (1.10–5.60g/100 g), and fructose (1.00–4.36 g/100 g). • Turnip: glucose (1.41 g/100 g), fructose (1.10 g/100 g), • bulgur flour: total sugar 2.23–3.30 g/100 g and 4.44–5.84 g/100 g, • Sourdough (mixed cultures of different LAB and yeasts)
LAB : L. sanfranciscensis, L. brevis, L. plantarum, L. reuteri, and L. fermentum. yeasts : S cerevisiae, S exiguous,Candida krusei
( -no standard production technique in industry.) two methods for shalgam production: -the traditional method(sourdough fermentation and carrot fermentation.) -the direct method.(only the carrot fermentation is applied. ) During fermentation:L acid, ethanol, organic compounds
Traditional Production Method 1-First Fermentation (Sourdough fermentation): enrichment of LAB and yeasts. -Bulgur flour (3%), salt (0.2%), sourdough (0.2%), and adequate water are mixed. -room temperature for 3–5 days. -.(pH drops .)
2- Second Fermentation (Carrot or main fermentation) extracts from Firstfermentation are combined with sorted and chopped black carrots (10–20%), salt (1–2%), if available sliced turnip (1–2%) . wooden vessels, fiberglass, plastic, or stainless steel tanks. Fermentation : 3 to 10 days at 10–35°C., colour compounds (anthocyanins) are extracted. can also be seasoned by adding chilli powder.) no Clarification is applied. marketed in sealed bottles and plastic containers.
Direct Production Method -The chopped black carrots (10–20%),salt(12%),turnip (1–2%), S cerevisiae) or sourdough (0.2%) -in the tank fermented at 10 to 35°C for 3–10 days. -marketed in sealed bottles and plastic containers. -LAB dominant organism.
Factors Affecting Shalgam Fermentation - microflora ( LAB, yeast, no commercial cultures available, inoculating up to 15% of shalgam from a previous production ) - chemical composition ofraw materials (turnipimproves sensory characteristics, Bulgur flour: nutrent source for microorganisms) -fermentation temperature(at 20–30°CLeuconostoc mesenteroides and yeasts are favoured, LAB growrapidly at 30–35°C. extraction of anthocyanins) -salt.1–2% to control the flora,favouring LAB Leuconostoc spp. Arethe least tolerant to salt, Lactobacillus spp. and Pediococcus spp. have similar salttolerance
Storage of shalgam -3 months storage at 4°C in a sealed container. -shelf life could be extended by pasteurisation, but cooked carrot flavour are not acceptable. -use of preservatives are not permitted legally.