control strategies in ccamlr fisheries graeme parkes n.
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Control Strategies in CCAMLR Fisheries Graeme Parkes

Control Strategies in CCAMLR Fisheries Graeme Parkes

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Control Strategies in CCAMLR Fisheries Graeme Parkes

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  1. Control Strategies in CCAMLR Fisheries Graeme Parkes Vessel: Maya V Image courtesy of ADF

  2. CCAMLR: The Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources • Organisation responsible for the management of fisheries in the Antarctic • Established under the Antarctic Treaty System in 1982 in response to concerns about the expansion of harvesting of krill and decline in finfish resources • International Commission with 24 Members and 10 States party to the Convention • Signed Convention with the objective of the conserving Antarctic marine living resources within the Convention Area • Convention sets out Principles of Conservation that are implemented through Conservation Measures

  3. Toothfish Longline Icefish Trawl Toothfish Trawl CCAMLR Fisheries Icefish Trawl Krill Trawl Toothfish Longline

  4. ** major fishing nation; * minor fishing nation

  5. CCAMLR Conservation Measures

  6. What type of IUU Fishing? High Seas outside CCAMLR (unregulated) Prince Edward Island (RSA) South Georgia (UK) South Sandwich Islands (UK) Crozet Island (FR) Kerguelen (FR) Heard Island (AUS) Inside EEZ and CCAMLR (illegal) Inside EEZ, outside CCAMLR (illegal) Ross Sea High Seas, inside CCAMLR (unreported or illegal)

  7. Main Compliance Issue: Longlining For Toothfish

  8. Illegal and unregulated fishing - bad for toothfish and bad for birds Illegals: up to 9 birds/ thousand hooks, unobserved Average 10 thousand hooks per line Legals: <0.01 birds/ thousand hooks, observed

  9. 1991 Apr 1996 Dec 1996 Jan 2002 History of illegal fishing for Toothfish Ross Sea

  10. IUU operations • Fleets of 3-8 vessels • Owner usually bare-boat charters to operating company, all in different countries. • Frequent reflagging and company changes Camuoco (Panama) arrested by France in 58.5.1, 1999 Arvisa 1 (Uruguay) seen by Australia in 58.4.2, 2002 (claimed it was the Kambott, ID disputed by Uruguay) Eternal 1 (Netherlands Antilles) arrested by France in 58.5.1, 2002

  11. At-sea Enforcement in the CCAMLR Area • CCAMLR System of Inspection: • Introduced in 1988 with subsequent amendments • Provides a general framework for the designation of inspectors by Members, procedures for the inspection of vessels (including the authority of the Inspectors) and reporting of findings to the Commission. • No centralised CCAMLR surveillance and inspection capability (other than the VMS) • All surveillance and inspections carried out by Members at their own expense. • Since 2000, 71 Inspections have been reported to CCAMLR. All but three of these were in Subarea 48.3 (South Georgia); 67 by the UK and 1 by Chile. 3 inspections by Australia in Division 58.4.3b 2006/07.

  12. At Sea Enforcement in the CCAMLR Area • Active surveillance and enforcement within the CCAMLR Area is overwhelmingly carried out by Coastal States: • UK (South Georgia) • Australia (Heard and MacDonald Islands) • France (Kerguelen and Crozet) • South Africa (Prince Edward and Marion Islands) • Some cooperative action (e.g. Viarsa 1)

  13. Map from Australian Customs Service web site Viarsa 1 Viarsa 1 apprehended in August 2003 for alleged illegal fishing in Australian waters surrounding Heard Island and McDonald Island (HIMI). Trial in December 2004 resulted in hung jury; retrial in September 2005 resulted in acquittal. Cost: in excess of AUS $4.5 million. Benefit: negative

  14. Russian flagged vessels Volga and Lena apprehended in February 2002 for fishing illegally in the Heard Island and McDonald Island (HIMI) EEZ; Lena forfeited to the Australian Government; 80 tonnes of catch sold for over AUD $1 million; master and two crewmembers fined a total of AUD $100 000 for illegal fishing; Lena forfeited and sunk off the coast of Western Australia in December 2003. Maya V Apprehended for alleged illegal fishing in the Australian EEZ in January 2004. Vessel forfeited and sold by the Australian Government. 191 tonnes of Patagonian toothfish forfeited and sold for more than AUD$2 million. June 2004 the Apache was found illegally fishing in the French EEZ around Kerguelen: subsequently impounded and the captain and crew fined Elqui arrested in March 2005 for illegal fishing for toothfish in South Georgia; vessel forfeited to the Government of South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands (SGSSI); scuttled at Shag Rocks, October 2005. Examples of recent successful actions against IUU Toothfish vessels(COLTO web site)

  15. CCAMLR – International cooperation; legislative action; diplomatic pressure; centralised VMS; CDS; black list Coastal states actions: New patrol vessels (South Africa, France, Australia) and surveillance systems including SAR: costs 10s of $M. Port state actions Import state actions Industry actions (e.g. COLTO); research on company actions NGO actions (e.g. ISOFISH, retail boycotts; trade analyses) Data analysis to monitor IUU changes and target actions Combination of Actions against IUU fishing in the Antarctic

  16. Summary of actions CCAMLR flag States – (some) action against vessels CCAMLR – Trade, monitoring, diplomatic Coastal States – Surveillance, patrolling & arrest NCP States – cooperation What has caused the decline? Which action was most important? Industry- exposure of IUU operators & companies Port States – Restriction on landing NGOs Publicity, calls for Moratorium, trade analyses

  17. What is most important in reducing IUU incentive? • Lack of fish • Exclusion: surveillance and arrests (probability of detection) • Exclusion: black lists & industry actions • CDS & VMS • Diplomatic pressure from CCAMLR on NCP states • Port & Flag State actions • NGO pressure • Broad action on many fronts

  18. Challenges with respect to the COBECOS project • Non-standard mix of RFMO and coastal state control systems • Data access • What do we want for the project? • Patrol coverage • Inspection frequency • Vessel operation economics • VMS data analysis

  19. The End