I. Sectionalism and Slavery A. Sectionalism: B. Missouri Compromise(1820) 1. 2. Missouri admitted as slave state, Maine admitted as a free state. a. C. War with Mexico adds more territory (dispute over slavery to U.S.) 1. More land = 2. Wilmot Proviso a. Prohibited slavery in any territories won from Mexico b. FAILED in Senate. 1.
D. Compromise of 1850 1. 2. North a. b. Slave trade, NOT slavery, forbidden in District of Columbia 3. South a. Stronger Fugitive Slave Law. 1. word of slave owner was proof of identity of the runaway 2. Suppress( ) Underground Railroad b. Slavery in Utah and New Mexico decided by “Popular Sovereignty”( )
Chronology of Events Leading to Civil War 1820 -- MISSOURI COMPROMISE 1850 -- FUGITIVE SLAVE LAW 1852 -- HARRIET BEECHER STOWE 1854 -- KANSAS/NEBRASKA ACT”BLEEDING KANSAS” 1857 -- DRED SCOTT DECISION 1858 -- ILLINOIS STATE ELECTION 1859 -- JOHN BROWN’S RAID ON HARPER’S FERRY,VA 1860 -- PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION 1860 -- SECESSION MOVEMENT 1861 -- FORMATION OF THE CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA 1861 -- FORT SUMTER CRISIS**APRIL 12, 1861**
Chronology of Events Leading to Civil War 1820--> Missouri Compromise: A. Balance of power in Senate 1. 11 free/11 slave B. 36°30’ Line 1. Above free; below slave 1850--> Fugitive Slave Law: A. Part of Compromise of 1850 B. Deny accused runaway a trial by jury C. Northerners must help find runaway slave
1852--> Harriet Beecher Stowe: A. “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” B. Sparked controversy and outrage about slavery C. 300,000 copies sold in first year D. “Little lady who began this war”-Lincoln 1854--> Kansas/Nebraska Act: A. Stephen Douglass/“Popular Sovereignty” B. “Bleeding Kansas” 1. free and slave states “race” into Kansas C. Popular Sovereignty repealed Missouri Compromise D. Senator Sumner “caned” by Rep. Brooks! 1. North outraged 2. South sent new canes to Brooks!
1857--> Dred Scott Decision: A. Scott was taken to free territory for a year as a slave, then was taken back to Missouri (slave territory) B. Scott sued and said he was free since he had lived in free territory C. Case went to Supreme Court: Chief Justice Roger Taney D. Ruling: 1. Blacks could not be and had never been U.S. citizens 2. Missouri Compromise unconstitutional; Congress had no power to ban slavery. **opened territories to slavery
1858--> Illinois State Election: A. Stephen Douglass/Lincoln Debates 1. Great displays of oration B. Lincoln lost, but gained national attention 1859--> John Brown’s Raid on Harper’s Ferry, VA A. Federal arsenal B. Abolitionist who would invade the South, arm the slaves, and then let them fight for freedom C. Brown’s plan failed, he was captured, tried, and hung D. North saw as a martyr; South was outraged
1860--> Presidential Election: A. Lincoln (Republicans) win presidency 1. “No extension of slavery” B. South saw this as the last straw!!
1860--> Presidential Election: A. Lincoln (Republicans) win presidency 1. “No extension of slavery” B. South saw this as the last straw!! 1860--> Secession Movement: A. With election of Lincoln, “Matters had passed beyond compromise!” B. S. Carolina, Mississippi, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Louisiana, Texas, and Virginia 1861--> Formation of Confederate States of America: A. Constitution: State’s rights and slavery B. Jefferson Davis: President
1861--> Fort Sumter Crisis: A. Federal fort in South Carolina B. Beauregard(S) v. Anderson(N) C. Anderson sent word that he needed food and supplies. If he didn’t get these in 6 weeks, he would have to surrender the fort D. Tough decision for Lincoln 1. Let fort go because non-strategic 2. Send supplies E. Lincoln sent supplies, not men or arms, and notified Gov. of South Carolina F. Decision now shifted to Davis 1. Said Lincoln’s attempt to supply Fort Sumter was an act of aggression G. April 12, 1861-- South opens fire on Ft. Sumter H. 40 hours of shelling--no deaths 1. Salute to flag-- 1 death I. South takes Ft. Sumter
The Civil War or ... I. Lincoln and Lee A. Before Ft. Sumter, Lincoln offers Lee command of Union troops B. Lee politely refuses: ”I cannot raise arms against my Virginia.” II. Lincoln’s call to arms A. Asks for 75,000; gets over 300,000! B. Romanticism III. 3 Additional states secede A. North Carolina, Tennessee, Arkansas B. Richmond becomes capital IV. Lincoln’s Cabinet: Strong-willed men A. William Seward: Secretary of State B. Salmon Chase: Secretary of Treasury C. Edwin Stanton: Secretary of War
V. The Border States A. Definition: 1. Maryland 2. Kentucky a. Lincoln: ”I would like to have God on my side, but he would have to have Kentucky. To lose Kentucky is to lose the whole game.” b. Why so important? 3. Missouri 4. Delaware B. If border states had seceded: VI. Northern Advantages A. Manpower: 23.3 mill. to 9.1 mill. B. Manufacturing: $1.7 bill. to $156 mill. C. Transportation: Railroad mileage 1. 22,000 miles to 9,000 miles D. Finances: Bank Deposits 1. $207 bill. to $47 mill. E. Political Leadership: LINCOLN
VII. Southern Advantages A. Military Leaders: LEE B. Fighting Defensively C. Familiar with guns and wilderness D. Fighting to protect family and home VIII. WHY FIGHT?!?!? A. North: to preserve the Union B. South: INDEPENDENCE IX. Strategy (plan to win the war) A. North (1) blockade Southern coast (Ironclads) (2) Capture Richmond (3) Control Mississippi River and cut Confederacy in two B. South (1) Hold out until Union tired of war
X. Theatres of War A. Eastern Theatre: all battles EAST of Appalachian Mountains. B. Western Theatre: all battles WEST of the Appalachians XI. Three major areas of Fighting: A. Between Richmond and Washington D.C. B. Tennessee C. Mississippi