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Endocrine Disruptors in the aquatic environment from non-wastewater sources

Endocrine Disruptors in the aquatic environment from non-wastewater sources

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Endocrine Disruptors in the aquatic environment from non-wastewater sources

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  1. Endocrine Disruptors in the aquatic environment from non-wastewater sources Poul Bjerregaard Ecotoxicology Group Institute of Biology University of Southern Denmark EEA ’Chemicals and Water’ Workshop, December 6-7, 2010

  2. UK and many other countries • Discharges from waste water treatments plants cause feminisation in male fish

  3. Feminisation expressed as: • Intersex • Ovotestes

  4. Intersex in roach Rutilus rutilus

  5. Normal testis ♂- intersex Bjerregaard et al. 2006. Ecotox. Environ Safety

  6. Intersex-frequency among British roach Jobling et al. 1998. Env. Sci. Technol. 32, 2498

  7. Intersex in roach 30 *** 25 20 Intersex frequency (%) 15 10 5 0 Aarhus Lake Almind Lake Ravn Egaa Kristrup landkanal Streams receiving sewage effluents Control sites Bjerregaard et al. 2006

  8. Recent French investigation • 474 roach examined in uncontaminated area • Frequency of intersex: • 0 • Geraudie et al. 2010. Fish Physiol. Biochem. 36, 767-777

  9. Feminisation expressed as: • Intersex • Ovotestes • Elevated vitellogenin levels Gonadotropins Estrogen Ovary Liver Vitellogenin

  10. Estrogenic effect of UK discharges Harries et al. 1996. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 15, 1993-2002

  11. Danish WWTP effluents PNEC No nitrifi- cation Nitrifi- cation E1: 60-70% E2: 30-40% EE2: Less importance Stuer-Lauridsen et al. 2005. Danish EPA-report

  12. Little estrogenic effect from Danish WWTPs • Still endocrine disrupted fish

  13. Brown trout vitellogenin levels Bjerregaard et al. Ecotoxicol. 15, 315-327, 2006 & Bjerregaard et al. Environ.Toxicol.Chem. 27, 2387-2396, 2008

  14. Other possibilities • Leaching of estrogens from agriculture

  15. Leaching from pig manure Kjær et al. 2007. Env. Sci. Technol. 41, 3911-3917

  16. Leaching from pig manure Kjær et al. 2007. Env. Sci. Technol. 41, 3911-3917

  17. EC50 values for brown trout • Induction of vitellogenin synthesis after 8-10 days’ exposure • E2: 15 ng/l • E1: 88 ng/l

  18. Phytoestrogens Alfalfa Lupine Peas Clover

  19. Naturally produced estrogens 17β-estradiol Biochanin A

  20. Biochanin AEffects in brown trout

  21. Phytoestrogens from silage • Suggested as a potential source of estrogenic activity in UK streams in farmland Matthiessen et al. 2006. Sci. Tot. Environ. 367, 616-630

  22. Phytoestrogen concentrations in water • Most determinations: • Nanogrammes per litre range • Some determinations: • Microgrammes per litre.

  23. Other possibilities? • Discharges from scattered houses in the open land with simple waste water treatment

  24. Danish survey • Up to 414 ng/l E2-equivalents in drains from septic tanks • Stuer-Lauridsen et al. 2005. Danish EPA report

  25. Pesticides • Numerous pesticides have endocrine disrupting potential • Many pesticides detected in freshwater systems

  26. Other natural sources? • Extracts from oak leves have anti-androgenic activity • Hermelink et al. 2010 • Saponins from horse chestnut?

  27. Endocrine disruption in the aquatic environment • Potentially a mix various sources: • Natural estrogens • From humans or livestock • Synthetic estrogens and androgens • Pesticides • Phytoestrogens • Other natural products

  28. Endocrine disrupting effects –also extending into coastal areas • UK flounders • Matthiessen et al. • UK mussels • Langston & Chesman (2006, 2007) • DK flounders • Unpublished results • Baltic eelpout? • Unpublished results