Renaissance & First Global Age Review 3 Practice Questions come from 2010-2014
Renaissance Europe • Began in Italy due to coast for trade, Byzantine monks fled from Constantinople bringing Greek/Roman ideas • Humanism– new way of thinking that emphasized reasoning and logic; new secular interests • Protestant Reformation • Scientific Revolution • Commercial Revolution • Age of Exploration • Enlightenment • Art that moves away from purely religious themes – Leonardo da Vinci (Mona Lisa, inventor and artist), Michelangelo (Sistine Chapel), Botticelli (Birth of Venus) – depicting nudes, human anatomy, portraiture – use oil and linear perspective (Brunelleschi) • Vernacular literature replaces solely in Latin (Shakespeare)
Jan 2010 Humanism during the Italian Renaissance was focused on (1) the affairs of the church (2) self-sufficiency (3) the importance of the individual (4) political theories
June 2010 • Focus on individual achievement • Use of classical Greek and Roman ideas • Artistic works of Leonardo da Vinci Which time period is most closely associated with these characteristics? (1) Hellenistic Golden Age (2) Early Middle Ages (3) European Renaissance (4) Scientific Revolution
Aug 2010 Which geographic factor contributed to the rise of the Renaissance in Italian city-states? (1) mountainous terrain of the Alps (2) location near the coast of the Mediterranean Sea (3) navigable waters of the Danube River (4) ease of travel on the Northern European Plain
June 2011 What was one ideal of Renaissance humanism? (1) training as a knight and practicing chivalry (2) obeying divine right monarchs and the church (3) living apart from the world and taking monastic vows (4) investigating areas of interest and fulfilling one’s potential
Aug 2011 One reason the Renaissance began in Italy was that Italian city-states (1) defeated the Spanish Armada (2) were unified as a nation under the Pope (3) were unaffected by the Commercial Revolution (4) dominated key Mediterranean trade routes
Aug 2012 During the Renaissance, humanist philosophers emphasized the importance of (1) individualism (2) absolutism (3) religious salvation (4) technological advancements
Jan 2013 • The world view shifted from other-worldly to secular. • Greek and Roman ideas were revived. • Improvements were made to the printing press. Which occurrence is most closely associated with these aspects of the Renaissance? (1) Gothic cathedrals became the focal point of town activities. (2) Charlemagne was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by the Pope. (3) Galileo Galilei published information about a heliocentric universe. (4) Emperors used the Twelve Tables to bring about PaxRomana.
Aug 2013 A reason the Renaissance began in the Italian city-states was that they (1) rejected the power of the papacy (2) were unified by Garibaldi (3) had wealth gained from trade with Constantinople (4) prevented guilds from functioning
Jan 2013 The economic wealth of Calicut, Mogadishu, and Venice in the 13th century was primarily dependent on their (1) fertile soil (3) gold mines (2) iron ore (4) coastal locations
Jan 2014 Which philosophy that was developed during the Renaissance is associated with a shift in focus away from religious subjects toward more secular subjects? (1) humanism (3) communism (2) absolutism (4) scholasticism
Protestant Reformation • Martin Luther wrote 95 Thesis to protest corruption of Catholic Church – especially indulgences. • Gutenberg’s printing press helps spread it. • John Calvin – predestination • Henry VIII – Act of Supremacy • Reformation will cause a permanent split (schism) in Christianity Counter-Reformation will try to bring people back to Catholic Church: end indulgences at Council of Trent, Inquisitions for heresy (Isabella/Ferdinand), creates Jesuits, Index of banned books
Jan 2010 Which individual’s work had the greatest impact on the spread of Martin Luther’s ideas? (1) Galileo Galilei (2) Niccolò Machiavelli (3) William Shakespeare (4) Johannes Gutenberg
June 2010 Which change to Christian church practice was suggested by Martin Luther? (1) increasing the sale of indulgences (2) installing statues of saints in churches (3) saying the mass in Latin so the faithful would learn it (4) printing the Bible in the vernacular so all could read it
Aug 2010 Which action led most directly to divisions in Christianity in western Europe? (1) Pope Urban II calling for the Crusades (2) King John signing the Magna Carta (3) German cities establishing the Hanseatic League (4) Martin Luther posting the Ninety-five Theses
Jan 2012 One impact Gutenberg’s printing press had on western Europe was (1) the spread of Martin Luther’s ideas (2) a decrease in the number of universities (3) a decline in literacy (4) the unification of the Holy Roman Empire
June 2012 Speaker A: The chief problem with the Roman Catholic Church is the practice of selling indulgences. The only way for Christians to receive salvation is through faith alone. Speaker B: If Christians want to be saved, they should perform good deeds and ask for forgiveness of sins. The granting of indulgences allows Christians to be excused for their sins. Speaker C: It is true that the Bible, and not members of the clergy, is the ultimate source of religious truth. However, God has already decided who will be saved and who will not. Speaker D: Since the Pope does not agree with my position, I have decided to separate from the Roman Catholic Church. I am now not only the head of England but also of the Anglican Church. 15 Which speaker most closely reflects the ideas of Martin Luther? 16 Which speaker best supports the idea of predestination taught by John Calvin?
Aug 2012 Which statement about the Protestant Reformation is an opinion rather than a fact? (1) German princes revolted against the Holy Roman Emperor. (2) Membership in the Catholic Church declined in northern Europe. (3) European religious unity was disrupted by the newly established religions. (4) Henry VIII led a stronger religious reform movement than Martin Luther did.
June 2013 One way in which Martin Luther’s Ninety-five Theses and Henry VIII’s Act of Supremacy are similar is that both (1) emphasize the importance of the Bible (2) caused the Thirty Years War (3) challenge the authority of the Catholic Church (4) helped to unify Christendom
Jan 2010 One way in which the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and the Versailles Conference (1918–1919) are similar is that they both attempted to (1) restore stability after a period of conflict or disorder (2) address economic concerns by lowering tariffs (3) defend human rights by establishing written codes of law (4) encourage cultural development through the creation of universities
Jan 2014 One result of the Protestant Reformation was (1) fewer challenges to Church authority (2) a decline in religious unity in western Europe (3) the disbanding of the Jesuit order (4) a weakening of the Inquisition
Aug 2013 Which situation was a direct challenge to the political and religious authority of the Catholic Church? (1) passage of the Act of Supremacy under Henry VIII (2) death sentence given to Joan of Arc (3) Reconquista of Spain conducted by Ferdinand and Isabella (4) establishment of the Jesuit order under Ignatius Loyola
Thematic – Jan 2012 Theme: Change—Individuals Throughout history, various circumstances have led individuals to develop or modify ideas. These ideas have often affected societies Task: Select two individuals from your study of global history and for each • Describe the historical circumstances that led this individual to develop or modify an idea • Explain an action taken by this individual as a result of this idea • Discuss how this individual’s idea affected a society You may use any individual from your study of global history and geography. Some suggestions you might wish to consider include Pericles, Martin Luther, Queen Elizabeth I,
Scientific Revolution • Change from science based on faith and Bible to experimentation • Francis Bacon – scientific method • Copernicus – heliocentricmodel of universe • Galileo – proved Copernicus right with telescope, will be charged with heresy • Isaac Newton – calculus and laws of motion
Aug 2010 Which pair of ideas were central to the Scientific Revolution? (1) social stability and economic self-sufficiency (2) observation and experimentation (3) technology and military expansion (4) scarcity and interdependence
Jan 2010 Which statement about the Scientific Revolution in Europe is accurate? (1) The existence of natural laws was rejected. (2) Scientists questioned traditional beliefs about the universe. (3) New ideas supported the geocentric theory of Ptolemy. (4) The Bible was used to justify new scientific findings.
June 2012 Galileo Galilei and Sir Issac Newton are most closely associated with (1) initiating religious reforms (2) leading political revolutions (3) conducting investigative experiments (4) engaging in foreign conquests
Aug 2013 One way in which the contributions of Copernicus, Galileo, and Newton are similar is that each (1) challenged the heliocentric theory of the universe (2) based his work on Enlightenment principles of social contract (3) practiced observation and experimentation in his work (4) supported the work of the Inquisition
DBQ – Jan 2011 Throughout history, ideas have shaped and influenced various societies and regions. These ideas include heliocentrism, natural rights, and Marxism. Task: Choose two ideas mentioned in the historical context and for each • Explain the idea • Discuss how this idea influenced societies or regions
Capitalism – Commercial Revolution • Hanseatic League, guilds, and rise of towns replace manorialism • Medici – Florentine banking and political family • Commercial Revolution – rise of capitalism (laissez-faire), joint-stock companies, and bourgeoisie
June 2010 Between 1300 and 1600, which economic system began to develop as a result of the transformation in global trade? (1) socialism (3) communism (2) capitalism (4) manorialism
June 2011 During the European Middle Ages, guilds were created to (1) obtain better working conditions in factories (2) standardize goods and prices (3) regulate the money supply (4) increase competition
Aug 2011 Which statement represents a central idea of laissez-faire economics (1) Class struggles are based on inequities. (2) Workers should form unions to better their conditions. (3) Prices are best determined by supply and demand. (4) The government should own all means of production.
Jan 2012 How did the Commercial Revolution change economic practices in Europe? (1) The manorial system was established. (2) A capitalist economy was developed. (3) The Church became a major economic power. (4) Colonies were granted independence.
June 2012 What was one result of the Commercial Revolution in Europe? (1) decrease in the size of the middle class (2) expansion of the manor system (3) development of financial institutions (4) wider use of the barter system
June 2013 What was one result of the European Commercial Revolution? (1) a decline in the spice trade (2) the destruction of the papacy (3) the development of capitalism (4) an increased reliance on bartering
Jan 2014 The development of banking during the Commercial Revolution in western Europe was significant because it (1) provided capital resources to merchants for investment (2) allowed peasant farmers to finance the construction of new homes (3) enabled the proletariat to challenge the bourgeoisie (4) created pensions for retired workers
Age of Exploration - Imperialism • Mercantilism – colonies established for providing motherland with colonies for raw materials and markets for manufactured goods – desired favorable balance of trade. • Motives – “God, Glory & Gold” • Inspired because of the conquest of the Byzantine Empire by Ottomans (Mehmet II) and desire for new route to India and Spice Islands • New Technology – astrolabe, compass, caravel, cartography
June 2010 The combined usage of the caravel, compass, and astrolabe in the late 1400s helped bring about the (1) migration of the Bantu (2) exploration of the Americas (3) introduction of Buddhism to East Asia (4) voyages of Zheng He
Aug 2010 Advances in navigation technology and the desire of Europeans to obtain goods from Asia are most closely associated with the (1) rise of feudalism (2) Agricultural Revolution (3) Age of Exploration (4) Age of Reason
Aug 2010 A key objective of a mercantilist policy was to (1) establish colonies for trade benefits (2) promote warfare throughout Europe (3) develop assembly lines in factories (4) support the spread of communist ideas
June 2011 During the first Global Age (A.D. 1450–1770), European countries obtained both a source of raw materials and a reliable market for their finished goods by developing (1) the policy of mercantilism (2) laissez-faire principles (3) trade cooperatives (4) forts along the Silk Roads
June 2012 In the late 1400s and early 1500s, what was a major reason for the European voyages of exploration? (1) introduction of Enlightenment ideas (2) desire to control Constantinople (3) rapid industrialization (4) need for alternate trade routes
Aug 2012 Europeans considered mercantilism a successful policy because it (1) encouraged self-sufficiency in less developed nations (2) led to alliances with Asian countries (3) protected traditional social practices (4) created wealth for the colonial powers
Jan 2013 Which idea is most closely associated with the economic concept of mercantilism? (1) Colonies exist to provide raw materials and markets for a colonial power. (2) Wealth and power are based on land exchanged between nobles. (3) Goods and services are traded without government interference. (4) Property is owned collectively and administered by the state.
Jan 2013 Which situation was an immediate cause for the collapse of the Aztec civilization? (1) disruption of overseas trade networks (2) conquest by foreigners (3) a series of crop failures (4) a lack of military training