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Splash Screen

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  1. Splash Screen

  2. CHAPTER FOCUS SECTION 1Ancient African Kingdoms SECTION 2The Middle Kingdoms SECTION 3East African Civilizations SECTION 4Path to the Americas SECTION 5Mesoamerica SECTION 6The Incas CHAPTER SUMMARY & STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER ASSESSMENT Click a hyperlink to go to the corresponding section.Press the ESC key at any time to exit the presentation. Contents

  3. Overview • Chapter 8 focuses on the development of civilization in Africa and the Americas.  • Section 1 discusses the Kush and Aksum civilizations.  • Section 2 describes West African kingdoms.  • Section 3 describes the contributions of the East African civilizations.  • Section 4 explains why people migrated to the Americas.  • Section 5 summarizes the civilizations of Mesoamerica.  • Section 6 analyzes the Inca civilization of South America. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Chapter Focus 1

  4. Objectives After studying this chapter, you will be able to: • discuss how the ancient civilizations of Kush and Aksum passed along their culture.  • summarize how West African and East African kingdoms developed because of trade.  • explain how bands of people crossed into the Americas.  • describe the civilizations that developed in Mesoamerica.  • discuss Inca culture. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Chapter Focus 2

  5. Read to Discover • How the ancient African civilizations of Kush and Aksum passed along elements of their culture  • How West African kingdoms and East African civilizations grew because of trade  • How Native Americans developed farming and other skills  • What kinds of civilizations developed in Mesoamerica  • What life was like for the Inca of South America Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Chapter Focus is on page 129 of your textbook. Chapter Focus 3

  6. Terms to Learn People to Know (cont.) • silent barter  • Sunni Ali  • pilgrimage  • population explosion  • quipus  • Askia Muhammad  • Montezuma II  • Pachacuti  Places to Locate People to Know • Meroë  • Kashta  • Timbuktu  • Zimbabwe  • Bering Strait  • Tenochtitlán  • Kilwa • Piankhi  • Ezana  • Sundiata Keita  • Mansa Musa  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Click the Speaker On button to listen to the words. Chapter Focus 4

  7. Why It’s Important While armies carved out empires in the Middle East, civilizations developed in Africa south of the Sahara and in the Americas. Through conquest and trade, Africans and early Americans built great kingdoms and empires that rivaled civilizations elsewhere in the world. Click the Speaker On button to replay audio. Chapter Focus 5

  8. End of Chapter Focus

  9. Ancient African Kingdoms • Other civilizations besides Egypt flourished in ancient Africa.  • Less is known about them than about Egypt.  • However, archaeologists have discovered enough remains to be able to tell what African civilizations were like. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1 begins on page 129 of your textbook. Section 1-1

  10. Kush • The first of these African civilizations was Kush, which lay south of Egypt on the Nile River in present-day Sudan.  • About 2000 B.C., the Kushites were nomadic cattle herders, grazing long-horned cattle on a savannah, or grassy plain.  • During the New Kingdom, Egyptian armies conquered Kush.  • About 1160 B.C., Egypt’s power declined and the Kushites won back their independence and set up a capital at Napata. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-2

  11. Kush (cont.) • About 750 B.C., the Kushite king Kashta set out to conquer Egypt.  • His son Piankhi completed the conquest and founded a dynasty that ruled Egypt for 70 years. • However, during the 600s B.C., the Assyrians invaded Egypt, and drove the Kushites back to the south.  • Despite their losses, the Kushites did gain something: they learned the secret of iron-smelting from the Assyrians. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-3

  12. Kush (cont.) • Soon, Kushite farmers, using iron hoes, were growing large amounts of grain.  • Around 540 B.C., the Kushites moved their capital to Meroë.  • Kush remained a great trading country for some 600 years, and then began to decline.  • As it declined, Aksum, in present-day Ethiopia, rose to take its place.  • About 350 A.D., Aksumite armies burned Meroë to the ground. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-4

  13. Aksum • Like Kush, Aksum was a trading country.  • Jewish, Greek, and Arab merchants settled in Aksum.  • It was most likely the Greeks who brought Christianity to Aksum.  • Emperor Ezana, whose armies had destroyed Meroë, converted to Christianity in 324 A.D. • This heritage was passed down to the present day. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-5

  14. Aksum (cont.) • Aksumites developed a writing system, minted gold coins, and learned to farm on terraces, or raised levels of land.  • Over time, Aksum’s power as a trading country began to decline.  • After Arab armies swept across North Africa in the 600s A.D., the Aksumites retreated toward the interior, or inland areas, of their country.  • There, they lived in isolation for more than 1,000 years. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-6

  15. Section Assessment How did the Kushites and Egyptians influence each other? Kushites learned to worship the god Amon-Re, how to work in copper and bronze, and to adapt hieroglyphs to fit their language. Egypt was also ruled for a time by Kush and was also influenced through trade. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-Assessment 1

  16. Section Assessment (cont.) Why did the Kushites choose Meroë as their capital? It was on the Nile, it lay near large deposits of iron ore and trees to fuel smelting furnaces, and it had good grazing land. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-Assessment 2

  17. Section Assessment (cont.) Making GeneralizationsHow were the kingdoms of Kush and Aksum influenced by other cultures? Kushites learned iron-smelting from the Assyrians; they worshiped the same god and built pyramids like the Egyptians; Aksumites took Christianity from the Greeks. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-Assessment 3

  18. Section Assessment (cont.) Draw a diagram like the one on page 131 of your textbook, and use it to show the effects of iron-smelting on Kush. Possible effects: made iron hoes, which increased grain production; made iron knives and spears for trade; moved capital to Meroë, where large deposits of iron ore and trees to fuel smelting could be found; grew into a great trading nation. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-Assessment 4

  19. End of Section 1

  20. The Middle Kingdoms • Several large trading kingdoms arose in West Africa after 400 A.D. • Their rise was aided by the knowledge of iron-smelting.  • This was most likely brought to West Africa by refugees, or people who flee for safety, from Kush. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2 begins on page 132 of your textbook. Section 2-1

  21. Ghana • The first of these trading kingdoms was Ghana.  • Legend has it that Ghana was founded about 200 A.D. • Around 350 A.D., the Ghanians learned how to smelt iron.  • They also gained control over West Africa’s major trade routes.  • The most important traded goods were salt and gold. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-2

  22. Ghana (cont.) • Caravans carried salt south from Taghaza in present-day Algeria and returned north with gold from Wangara, an area southwest of Ghana.  • Ghanian merchants and Wangara gold miners used a trading technique called silent barter. • In 1042 A.D., Arabs from North Africa started a war against Ghana. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-3

  23. Ghana (cont.) • The Arabs destroyed the capital and made the Ghanians give them tribute.  • Ghana managed to regain its independence but was not strong enough to survive. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-4

  24. Mali • By 1240 A.D., Ghana was a part of Mali, the second large trading kingdom in West Africa.  • Sundiata Keita, the king of Mali, did several things to make his kingdom strong:  • He reestablished the salt-gold trade, which the Arabs had disrupted.  • He organized a permanent army.  • He divided the kingdom into provinces, each headed by a general.  • He moved his capital from place to place. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-5

  25. Mali (cont.) • One of the most famous kings of Mali was Mansa Musa I, or King Moses I.  • He led a pilgrimage, or religious journey, to Arabia in 1324–25; it took more than 14 months to cover the 3,000 miles.  • Within 100 years after Mansa Musa’s death, Mali lost its land to others due to weak leadership. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-6

  26. Songhai • The kingdom that replaced Mali as the most powerful in West Africa was Songhai.  • The Sultan Sunni Ali, in 1464, ruled Songhai from the city of Gao.  • Following Sunni Ali’s death, Askia Muhammad came to power in Songhai.  • Songhai was more organized than the other two kingdoms.  • It was divided into provinces with a governor for each. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-7

  27. Songhai (cont.) • Despite its power, Songhai lasted only 100 years.  • In 1591 A.D., a Moroccan army, armed with guns, sought to capture Songhai’s gold mines.  • The Moroccans defeated Songhai’s soldiers, who were armed with swords and spears. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-8

  28. Section Assessment What were two important trade goods in West Africa? Two important trade goods were salt and gold. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-Assessment 1

  29. Section Assessment (cont.) How was the kingdom of Songhai organized? It was divided into provinces, each with a governor. Everyone used the same weights, measures, and legal system. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-Assessment 2

  30. Section Assessment (cont.) Making Inferences Why do you think Ghanian merchants set up a system called silent barter? Answers will vary but might include that Ghanian merchants might have been dealing with people who did not speak their language. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-Assessment 3

  31. Section Assessment (cont.) Draw a diagram like the one on page 134 of your textbook, and use it to summarize the accomplishments of the three great West African kingdoms. Accomplishments should reflect the policies established by the rulers of each kingdom, particularly the growth of trade and encouragement of learning. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-Assessment 4

  32. End of Section 2

  33. East African Civilizations • The growth of trading kingdoms in West Africa was matched by the rise of trading kingdoms and city-states in East Africa. • Goods moved from the interior of East Africa to coastal markets, which, in time, became large city-states.  • Each of these had its own ruler and government. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3 begins on page 136 of your textbook. Section 3-1

  34. Zimbabwe • One of the best-known trading kingdoms was Zimbabwe.  • Their ancestors, the Shona, once lived in present-day Nigeria in West Africa. • About 100 A.D., a population explosion,or a large and sudden growth in population, took place forcing some people to move.  • The Shona settled in Zimbabwe in East Africa about 700 A.D., where they built towns of stone. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-2

  35. Zimbabwe (cont.) • The people of Zimbabwe viewed their chief as a god-king.  • Officials imitated him; if he coughed, they coughed; when he ate, they ate. • Zimbabwe’s people traded gold, copper, and ivory from the interior to merchants from cities along Africa’s east coast. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-3

  36. Kilwa • Another important trading city-state in East Africa was Kilwa.  • The people of Kilwa collected heavy taxes from traders of other countries.  • They used their wealth to extend their power over neighboring city-states.  • A culture known as Swahili–a mix of African and Arabic cultures–developed in Kilwa and other East African city-states. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-4

  37. Section Assessment How did the people of Zimbabwe view their leader? They viewed him as a god-king. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 3- Assessment 1

  38. Section Assessment (cont.) How did the people at Kilwa use their wealth? They used their wealth to extend their power over neighboring city-states, to dress in fine cotton and silk, and to fill their houses with riches from India and China. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 3- Assessment 2

  39. Section Assessment (cont.) Understanding Cause and Effect A population explosion among the Shona caused many of these people to leave their homeland. What are some of the events or conditions that might cause people to leave their homelands today? People might leave their homelands because of war, famine, disease, religious persecution, or simply hope of a better life. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 3- Assessment 3

  40. Section Assessment (cont.) Draw a diagram like the one on page 137 of your textbook, and use it to show features of Swahili culture. Swahili culture was made up of city-states, traded with people across the Red Sea and Indian Ocean, and spoke a language created from Arabic and Bantu. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 3- Assessment 4

  41. End of Section 3

  42. Path to the Americas • Until about 25,000 years ago, there were no people in the Americas. • Then, bands of people began to cross into the Americas from Asia over a land bridge formed during the last Ice Age.  • Today, this bridge is covered by the waters of the Bering Strait.  • Experts believe people reached the southern tip of South America by about 9000 B.C. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 4 begins on page 137 of your textbook. Section 4-1

  43. Path to the Americas (cont.) • About 7000 B.C., the last Ice Age ended and the climate became hotter and drier.  • By 6000 B.C., people in the Tehuacán Valley south of present-day Mexico City had developed farming.  • By 3000 B.C., there were thousands of small farming villages all through the Americas.  • Between 3000 B.C. and 1000 B.C., people developed such skills as weaving and pottery making. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 4-2

  44. Section Assessment How did hunting-and-gathering bands travel to the Americas? They came across a land bridge over the Bering Strait. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 4- Assessment 1

  45. Section Assessment (cont.) How long may it have taken for people to spread out over North and South America? It may have taken from 23,000 B.C. to 9000 B.C., or about 14,000 years to spread out. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 4- Assessment 2

  46. Section Assessment (cont.) When and where did farming first appear? By about 6000 B.C., people in the Tehuacán Valley south of present-day Mexico City had developed farming. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 4- Assessment 3

  47. Section Assessment (cont.) Understanding Cause and Effect What do you think caused hunting-and-gathering bands to push farther south into the Americas? Answers will vary but could include the need for food, safety from attack, weather, or curiosity. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 4- Assessment 4

  48. Section Assessment (cont.) Draw a diagram like the one on page 138 of your textbook, and use it to show the cause and effects of the invention of farming in Mesoamerica. cause–end of the last Ice Age and the disappearance of most large game effects–rise of farming villages, development of weaving and pottery making, construction of irrigation ditches, population growth Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 4- Assessment 5

  49. End of Section 4

  50. Mesoamerica • As the number of people grew, societies became more complex.  • Several great civilizations rose in Mesoamerica, or Middle America, before 900 A.D. and others later. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 5 begins on page 138 of your textbook. Section 5-1