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SESSION OBJECTIVES

SESSION OBJECTIVES

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SESSION OBJECTIVES

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  1. SESSION OBJECTIVES • At the end of this session participants should be able to: • Understand the FIO model • Understand the process of value creation • Identify the drivers of value • Identify links between financial statements

  2. Selecting and sourcing prudent funding options Selecting and makingsound resource commitments The Process of Value Creation Creating economic value for the owners Operating resources in a competitive, cost-effective manner

  3. The Three Basic Business Decisions Financing Decisions Investment Decisions The three basic decisions made by management Operating Decisions

  4. INCOME STATEMENT ANALYSIS

  5. THE INCOME STATEMENT • IT IS OF PRIME IMPORTANCE TO CEO • IT IS A PERIOD STATEMENT • IT IS BASED ON THE ‘MATCHING’ PRINCIPLE • STATEMENT OF VALUE CREATION REVENUE - EXPENSES = INCOME

  6. INCOME STATEMENT CLASSIFICATIONS SALES PRICE X VOLUME REVENUE EXPENSES PRODUCT VS. DIRECT VS. PERIOD COST INDIRECT COST INCOME DIVIDENDS + RETAINED EARNINGS - = VARIABLE VS FIXED COST

  7. INCOME STATEMENT ITEMS REVENUE Price X Volume - COST OF GOODS SOLD Product Cost Direct Expense Fixed and Variable Expense - SELLING,GENERAL, AND ADMINISTRATIVE Period Cost, Indirect Expense, Fixed and Variable Cost - INTEREST Financing Cost - TAXES = NET INCOME

  8. COMMON SIZED ANALYSIS • COMMON SIZE ANALYSIS CONVERTS EACH ITEM ON THE INCOME STATEMENT INTO A PERCENTAGE IN ORDER FOR ANALYSIS TO BE PERFORMED ON A COMMON BASIS. EACH ITEM IS EXPRESSED AS A PER CENT OF REVENUES. • PERCENT OF TOTAL • APPLES AND APPLES • IDENTIFY TRENDS

  9. COMMON SIZED ANALYSIS THE INCOME STATEMENT FACSIMILIE CO. For the Period Ending 12/31/XX REVENUES $ 7523 100% - COST OF GOODS SOLD 4849 65 = GROSS MARGIN 2674 35 - S.G.& A. 152420 = OPERATING INCOME 1150 15 - INTEREST EXPENSE 160 2 = NET INCOME BEFORE TAX 990 13 - TAXES ON INCOME 336 5 = NET INCOME 594 8

  10. PERCENT ANALYSIS ALLOWS ONE TO TRACK CHANGES IN FINANCIAL STATEMENTS FROM ONE REPORTING PERIOD TO THE NEXT CALCULATE THE CHANGE IN AN ITEM, THEN, DIVIDE THAT BY PREVIOUS YEARS TOTAL EXAMPLE: PERCENT CHANGE = (THIS YEAR - LAST YEAR) DIVIDED BY LAST YEAR PERCENT CHANGE FOR COST OF GOODS: (5625 - 4849) / 4849 = 16.0%

  11. INCOME STATEMENT RATIOS RETURN ON SALES Net Income / Total Sales GROSS MARGIN Gross Margin / Total Sales S. G. & A. RATIO S.G.&A. Expenses / Total Sales INTEREST COVERAGE Operating Income / Interest Expense OPERATING MARGIN Operating Income / Sales NET MARGIN Net Income / Sales

  12. INCOME STATEMENT- LINKS TO BALANCE SHEET BALANCE SHEETINCOME STATEMENT ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE REVENUES INVENTORY - COST OF GOODS - OTHER EXPENSES RETAINED EARNINGS =NET INCOME

  13. LIMITATIONS OF INCOME STATEMENT • EXPENSES ARE NOT DETAILED • DEPRECIATION AND COST OF GOODS ARE UNDERSTATED IN INFLATIONARY PERIODS • CAPITALIZATION VS. EXPENSING • IGNORES THE COST OF EQUITY FINANCING

  14. SUMMARY • INCOME STATEMENT PROVIDES INFORMATION • REVENUES • EXPENSES • NET INCOME • YOU HAVE LEARNED HOW TO CALCULATE AND ANALYZE THE INCOME STATEMENT USING: • COMMON SIZE ANALYSIS • PERCENT CHANGE ANALYSIS • ANALYSIS DOES NOT SHOW UNDERLYING CAUSES

  15. BALANCE SHEET ANALYSIS

  16. THE BALANCE SHEET • IT IS A SNAP SHOT SHOWING WHAT THE COMPANY OWNS AND OWES AT A POINT IN TIME • HOW MUCH DID WE INVEST? • HOW IS THE INVESTMENT FINANCED? • WHAT ASSETS DO WE OWN? • TANGIBLE/ INTANGIBLE • SHORT TERM/ LONG TERM • ASSETS = LIABILITIES + OWNERS’ EQUITY • IT IS OF PRIME IMPORTANCE TO CFO

  17. CASH A/R INVEN-TORY OTHER ACCTS.PAYABLE WAGES PAYABLE ACCRUALS LONG TERM DEBT RETAINED EARNINGS CURRENT LIABILITIES LONG TERM LIABILITIES OWNER’S EQUITY CURRENT ASSETS FIXED ASSETS = NET P.&E. OTHER THE BALANCE SHEET

  18. INVESTMENT IN FIXED ASSETS • DEPRECIATION EXPENSE • ACCUMULATED DEPRECIATION • DEPRECIATION METHODS • STRAIGHT LINE • ACCELERATED • BOOK VALUE • ECONOMIC VALUE

  19. INVESTMENT IN WORKING CAPITAL • WORKING CAPITAL = CURRENT ASSETS - CURRENT LIABILITIES • MEASURES THE NET INVESTMENT IN OPERATING CASH CYCLE • WORKING CAPITAL NECESSARY TO: • PRODUCE PRODUCT • MAINTAIN DAY-TO-DAY OPERATIONS • MAKE SALES

  20. CAPITAL • DEBT + OWNER’S EQUITY = INVESTED CAPITAL • ANY INVESTMENT EARNING RETURNS IS CAPITAL • DEBT: INTEREST • EQUITY: DIVIDENDS & STOCK PRICE • BALANCE SHOWS HOW ASSETS WERE FINANCED • LEVERAGE: PROPORTION OF CAPITAL FROM DEBT

  21. CAPITAL FROMINVESTMENT SHORT TERM LOANS WORKING CAPITAL LONG TERM DEBT =+ OWNER’S EQUITY FIXED ASSETS THE RETURN TO THE PROVIDERS OF CAPITAL COMES FROM THE EARNINGS FROM INVESTMENTS INVESTMENT

  22. THE BALANCE SHEET AND MANAGEMENT ACTION WORKING CAPITALLONG TERM LIABILITIES CREDIT POLICY DEBT POLICIES PRODUCTION SCHEDULES PENSIONS PAYMENT POLICY TAX DEFERMENT FIXED ASSETSOWNER’S EQUITY EQUIPMENT PURCHASES STOCK ISSUANCE ACQUISITIONS REPURCHASE LONG TERM INVESTMENTS DIVIDEND POLICY

  23. Debt + Equity Total Debt Equity Assets Equity Cost of Goods Sold Average Inventory BALANCE SHEET RATIOS Current Assets - Inventories QUICK RATIO DEBT AS A PERCENT OF CAPITALIZATION DEBT TO EQUITY FINANCIAL LEVERAGE DAY’S SALES O/S INVENTORY TURNOVER Current Liabilities Total Debt Accounts Receivable Average Daily Credit Sales

  24. BALANCE SHEET- LINKS TO THE INCOME STATEMENT BALANCE SHEETINCOME STATEMENT ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE REVENUES INVENTORY - COST GOODS - OTHER EXPENSES RETAINED EARNINGS = NET INCOME

  25. LIMITATIONS OF THE BALANCE SHEET • HISTORICAL COST RESULTS IN UNDERVALUED ASSETS SUCH AS REAL ESTATE • SOME LIABILITIES NOT RECORDED (OFF BALANCE SHEET FINANCING) • INTANGIBLE ASSETS MIS-PRICED • BALANCE SHEET LOOKS BACKWARD

  26. SUMMARY • BALANCE SHEET PROVIDES KEY INFORMATION • SIZE OF ACCOUNT BALANCES • NEW INVESTMENTS • FINANCING OF NEW INVESTMENTS • FINANCIAL TOOLS AVAILABLE TO ANALYZE BALANCE SHEET • PERCENT CHANGE • COMMON SIZE • RATIO ANALYSIS

  27. CASH FLOW STATEMENT

  28. WHY EXAMINE CASH FLOW? • A COMPANY IS A COLLECTION OF PROJECTS EACH GENERATING CASH. CASH FLOW STATEMENTS TOTAL THE SOURCES AND USES OF CASH FOR ALL PROJECTS. • CASH FLOW STATEMENT ANALYSIS ALLOWS US TO DETERMINE: • NEED FOR EXTERNAL FUNDING • ABILITY TO PAY CASH RETURN TO INVESTORS • RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INVESTMENT AND GENERATION OF CASH • IT IS OF PRIME IMPORTANCE TO COO

  29. Financing Investing Returning Operating THE CASH FLOW CYCLE • FOUR STAGES • FINANCING • INVESTING • OPERATING • RETURNING

  30. EQUITY LIABILITIES THE CASH CYCLE-FINANCING (OWNER’S ) (LENDERS) CASH

  31. LABOR, MATERIALS, OVERHEAD,ETC. FIXED ASSETS INVENTORY THE CASH CYCLE-INVESTING CASH

  32. THE CASH CYCLE-OPERATING I.O.U. ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE CASH SG&A REVENUE • INVENTORY SALE

  33. THE CASH CYCLE- RETURNING OWNERS LENDERS EQUITY LIABILITIES TAXES CASH

  34. THE CASH CYCLE LIABILITIES EQUITY TAXES ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE CASH • FIXED ASSETS LAB, MTLS, ETC SG&A INVENTORY REVENUE

  35. CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATIONS + CASH FLOWS FROM INVESTING + CASH FLOWS FROM FINANCING = NET CHANGE IN CASH THE CASH FLOW STATEMENT • RECONCILES THE BEGINNING AND ENDING CASH BALANCES • CATEGORIZES CASH FLOW BY ACTIVITY • OPERATING • INVESTING • FINANCING