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Building A Nation

Building A Nation

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Building A Nation

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  1. Building A Nation Instructor: Carol Jean Cox

  2. BUILDING A NATION • THE WAR OF 1812 • ERA OF GOOD FEELINGS 1815-1824 • MONROE DOCTRINE 1823 • JACKSONIAN ERA 1824-1840 • COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE • MARKET REVOLUTION • TRANSPORTATION INNOVATIONS • INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION • ROMANTICISM AND REFORMS

  3. BUILDING A NATION • WAR OF 1812 • War Hawks, issues, highlights & outcome • Builds sense of national pride • ERA OF GOOD FEELINGS 1815-1824 • Good relationships between U.S. & Britain after war • Demilitarization of Great Lakes • (Rush-Bagot Agreement of 1817) • American fishing rights/Canadian waters 1818 • 49th parallel from head of Mississippi to Rockies • Joint occupation of Oregon country

  4. BUILDING A NATION • ERA OF GOOD FEELINGS 1815-1824 • Good relationships between U.S. & Britain after war • Annexation of Florida in 1819 for $5 million from Spain • Establishment of Boundaries • Transcontinental Treaty - defined boundary of U.S. & Spanish • Gulf of Mexico/west boundary of Louisiana • west & north to Rockies/ • west along 42nd parallel

  5. BUILDING A NATION • THE WAR OF 1812 • ERA OF GOOD FEELINGS 1815-1824 • MONROE DOCTRINE 1823 • JACKSONIAN ERA 1824-1840 • COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE • MARKET REVOLUTION • TRANSPORTATION INNOVATIONS • INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION • ROMANTICISM AND REFORMS

  6. BUILDING A NATION • MONROE DOCTRINE 1823 • America's diplomatic position • American continents no longer open to colonization by European powers. • Warning against any interference by European powers into the revolutionary powers of Latin America The American continents henceforth are not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European Powers…” James Monroe

  7. BUILDING A NATION • THE WAR OF 1812 • ERA OF GOOD FEELINGS 1815-1824 • MONROE DOCTRINE 1823 • JACKSONIAN ERA 1824-1840 • COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE • MARKET REVOLUTION • TRANSPORTATION INNOVATIONS • INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION • ROMANTICISM AND REFORMS

  8. BUILDING A NATION • John Quincy Adams 1824-1828 • National Republican Party • "Bargain & Corruption” • Clay's American System (N.E. & Ohio River Valley) • Democratic Republican Party • Jackson, Calhoun & Martin Van Buren John Quincy Adams Henry Clay

  9. BUILDING A NATION • JACKSONIAN ERA 1824 - 1840 • Jacksonian Democracy • Popular Sovereignty • Politicians promised voters what they wanted • Strong support of the Labor movement Andrew Jackson Travels to Washington (Library of Congress)

  10. BUILDING A NATION • JACKSONIAN ERA 1824 - 1840 • JACKSON 1828-1836 • Jackson - the people's man • vigorous leadership • egalitarian • any honest citizen can represent in government • the people themselves should decide on public policy • "spoils system" • offices given as a reward for their support POPULAR WILL -----> PUBLIC POLICY The Election of 1828

  11. BUILDING A NATION • JACKSONIAN ERA 1824 - 1840 • JACKSON 1828-1836 (con't) • Neo Jeffersonian ideas • sought to unite southern planters & N.E. • agrarian mindedness • Jackson's Policies • Pay off the National Debt • Against internal improvements programs • Pro-Central Government

  12. BUILDING A NATION • JACKSONIAN ERA 1824 - 1840 • JACKSON 1828-1836 (con't) • Nullification Controversy 1828 • 1. Constitution - a compact among states • 2. Federal government given clearly defined powers • 3. States were judges of powers of constitution • 4. States could declare null and void any laws not stated in constitution • 5. Federal Government must stop performing laws until 3/4 states granted it the nullified power

  13. BUILDING A NATION • JACKSONIAN ERA 1824 - 1840 • JACKSON 1828-1836 (con't) • Force Act • Central government can use force to uphold laws • Jackson threatens South Carolina • Anti-Bank ... The Bank War • Jackson versus second U.S. Bank • declared bank unconstitutional • surplus funds placed in pet banks

  14. BUILDING A NATION • JACKSONIAN ERA 1824 - 1840 • JACKSON 1828-1836 (con't) • Anti-Bank ... The Bank War • Jackson stopped deposits to BUS • Put money in pet banks • BUS calls in debts to pay bills • leads to bank failures • Jackson government declared that lands must be paid with hard currency • Depression & Panic of 1837 leads to banking reforms

  15. BUILDING A NATION • JACKSONIAN ERA 1824 - 1840 • Martin Van Buren 1836-1840 • Two Party System • Whigs versus Democrats • Depression • factories closed - riots • larger banks no longer accept specie • worthless paper money • Van Buren blames banks less government to interfere with private pursuits

  16. BUILDING A NATION • JACKSONIAN ERA 1824 - 1840 • Tippecanoe & Tyler too! 1840-1844 • William Henry Harrison - symbol • no political record • political packaging • Clay planning to control • W.H.H. death • John Tyler - disowned by party • against bank • Whig party disintegrates in south • Webster Ashburton Treaty William Henry Harrison (Library of Congress)

  17. BUILDING A NATION • THE WAR OF 1812 • ERA OF GOOD FEELINGS 1815-1824 • MONROE DOCTRINE 1823 • JACKSONIAN ERA 1824-1840 • COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE • MARKET REVOLUTION • TRANSPORTATION INNOVATIONS • INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION • ROMANTICISM AND REFORMS

  18. BUILDING A NATION • COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE • Cotton Belt from North Carolina to Louisiana • 18th century machinery to manufacture cotton cloth cheaply • difficulty of separating fibers from the seeds • Eli Whitney 1793 (Cotton Gin) • Spectacular Expansion of Cotton in 19th century • production 146,000 bales in 1814 • 349,000 bales in 1819 The Cotton Gin(National Archives)

  19. BUILDING A NATION • COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE • spectacular expansion of cotton • Tobacco cultivation lags after Revolution • new tobacco belts in Kentucky/Tennessee/Missouri • Rice in South Carolina & Georgia • Sugar plantations in LA • Wheat Pennsylvania to Ohio, Indiana, & Illinois • Fruits, vegetables,. poultry/dairy, woolinNew England. • Corn, flour, pork, beef throughout states

  20. BUILDING A NATION • THE WAR OF 1812 • ERA OF GOOD FEELINGS 1815-1824 • MONROE DOCTRINE 1823 • JACKSONIAN ERA 1824-1840 • COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE • MARKET REVOLUTION • TRANSPORTATION INNOVATIONS • INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION • ROMANTICISM AND REFORMS

  21. BUILDING A NATION • THE MARKET REVOLUTION • Three stages in the development of the American economy • a staple exporting economy • (tobacco, grain etc. for overseas) • carrying trade (merchants) • self sufficiency in economic activities • Trends • Exporting economy of 18th cent. --> trading economy -->national market economy • diversity --> specialty • limited local trade --> national market system • gains in efficiency/productivity --> rapid growth

  22. BUILDING A NATION • THE MARKET REVOLUTION • Four Year Boom 1815 - 1818 • Boom/Bust Cycles • Internal Trade Cycle Established • None of this trade possible without the ability to transport bulky products from one part of the country to another

  23. BUILDING A NATION • THE WAR OF 1812 • ERA OF GOOD FEELINGS 1815-1824 • MONROE DOCTRINE 1823 • JACKSONIAN ERA 1824-1840 • COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE • MARKET REVOLUTION • TRANSPORTATION INNOVATIONS • INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION • ROMANTICISM AND REFORMS

  24. BUILDING A NATION • TRANSPORTATION REVOLUTION • Turnpikes - • Steamboat - • Canals - • Railroads • Enterprise/Public Policy • " MIXED ENTERPRISE" to accomplish ends beneficial to public • The Turnpike, Steamboat, Railroad Companies were the forerunners the modern corporation Robert Fulton

  25. BUILDING A NATION • THE WAR OF 1812 • ERA OF GOOD FEELINGS 1815-1824 • MONROE DOCTRINE 1823 • JACKSONIAN ERA 1824-1840 • COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE • MARKET REVOLUTION • TRANSPORTATION INNOVATIONS • INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION • ROMANTICISM AND REFORMS

  26. BUILDING A NATION • INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION • Trends Agriculture --> Manufacturing Rural ----> Urban • 90% farmers (colonial) • 97% non-farmers(today) • Importance of machines • Power to propel new machines • water--> steam --> coal --> electricity • Factory system • replaced skilled craftsmen • mass production • mostly women & children • no assembly line until 1900's

  27. BUILDING A NATION • INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION • Trends • Importance of machines • Factory system • Inventors Industry resources • national resources, capital & labor • Tariffs to support domestic industries • Tariff of 1816 - foreign importation that competed with American manufacture cotton, woolen cloth & iron - import duties of 20-25% • additional tariffs in 1818 &1819 (wool & iron)

  28. BUILDING A NATION • NATIONALISM. . . . factors contributing to it • Monroe Doctrine • Marshall's Court Decisions • Clay's American System • National Markets

  29. BUILDING A NATION • THE WAR OF 1812 • ERA OF GOOD FEELINGS 1815-1824 • MONROE DOCTRINE 1823 • JACKSONIAN ERA 1824-1840 • COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE • MARKET REVOLUTION • TRANSPORTATION INNOVATIONS • INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION • ROMANTICISM AND REFORMS

  30. BUILDING A NATION • ROMANTICISM AND REFORMS • Utopian Age • Americans love the new pursuit of money, of individualism, in which relationships constantly change • A cultural development of the United States that grew out18th century Enlightenment • Romanticism • a new configuration of ideas/attitudes • world designed for man's happiness • emphasized man's ability

  31. BUILDING A NATION • ROMANTICISM AND REFORMS • Romanticism OPTIMISM & INDIVIDUALISM • A reaction against Enlightenment's mechanical view of the natural world with its emphasis on intellect • Romanticism distrusted intellect, valued EMOTION & INTUITION

  32. BUILDING A NATION • ROMANTICISM AND REFORMS • Romantic Movements • TRANSCENDENTALISM - to rise above reason • Ralph Waldo Emerson • James Fenimore Cooper • Herman Melville • ROMANTIC CHRISTIANITY • increasingly self-reliant, optimistic/individualistic • GREAT REVIVAL OF 1800-1825 • Love is the essence of Christian Life

  33. BUILDING A NATION • ROMANTICISM AND REFORMS • Romantic Movements • UTOPIANISM "communities without sin" • Religious Utopians • Shakers - celibacy • Oneida, N.Y. - complex marraige • Mormons - polygamy • Secular Utopians • New Harmony, Indiana • Brook Farm, MA • Fouriersts - creation of phalanzes

  34. BUILDING A NATION • ROMANTICISM AND REFORMS • Feminist Movement • “Declaration of Sentiments” “All men and women are created equal”

  35. BUILDING A NATION • THE WAR OF 1812 • ERA OF GOOD FEELINGS 1815-1824 • MONROE DOCTRINE 1823 • JACKSONIAN ERA 1824-1840 • COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE • MARKET REVOLUTION • TRANSPORTATION INNOVATIONS • INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION • ROMANTICISM AND REFORMS

  36. Building A Nation Instructor: Carol Jean Cox