Nation Building How does a nation grow and expand? Does a nation have a right to expand into new territories? How does that nation deal with the indigenous populations already living in that territory?
Haitian Revolution • Connection to our class? • What did you learn?
Toussaint Louverture • Leader of the Haitian Independence movement • Often considered to be the “black George Washington of Haiti and emancipated the slaves.
Louisiana Purchase • U.S bought 828,000 acres of land from France in 1803 for $15 million (that’s less than $.05 per acre!) • Land west of the Mississippi River-this doubled the size of the US • France had just lost battles in Haitian Revolution and needed the money. France also lacked a powerful navy to control far away territories.
Meriwether Lewis and William Clark. Who are these guys?
Lewis and Clark • Led a government sponsored expedition to explore the new territories. • Left St. Louis Missouri in 1804 and returned two years later. • Travelled 8,000 miles to gather information about the plants, animals, resources and people (especially the Native Americans) in the territory. • Expedition lead to the acquisition of the Oregon Territory.
The words of Thomas Jefferson • “The object of your mission is to explore the Missouri River and such principal streams of it, as, by its course and Communications with the waters of the Pacific Ocean may offer the most direct and practicable water communication across this continent for the purpose of commerce….”
The words of Lewis and Clark • “Our party from necessity having been obliged to subsist some length of time on dogs have now become extremely fond of their flesh…For my own part I have become so perfectly reconciled to the dog that I think it an agreeable food and would prefer it vastly to lean venison or elk.” • Meriwether Lewis • “As for my own part I have not become reconciled to the taste of this animal as yet.” • William Clark • “Ocean in view! O! the joy….We are in view of the Ocean, this great Pacific Ocean which we [have] been so long anxious to see, and the roaring or noise made by the waves breaking on the rocky shores….may be heard distinctly.”
Manifest Destiny • Originated in the 1840’s. • Expressed belief that it was white Americans’ mission and right to expand their civilization and culture across North America. • From “sea to shining sea”. • Included securing the territories of Oregon, California, Mexican land in the Southwest and Cuba. • Involved not just territory, but the progress of liberty and individual economic opportunity as well.
Manifest Destiny continued…. • Phrase first used by John O’Sullivan in the annexation of Texas in 1845 in the US Magazine and Democratic Review. • “Our manifest destiny to overspread the continent allotted by Providence for the free development of our yearly multiplying millions”.
Who is this man? • Simon Bolivar of Venezuela
Simon Bolivar: Case Study • South American soldier-instrumental in revolutions against the Spanish empire. One of the best generals in South American history. • Called El Libertador (The Liberator) • May 14, 1813: start of his “Compana Admirable” (Admirable Campaign. • By 1821, under Bolivar’s leadership: Venezuela, Columbia, Panama and Ecuador were created. • He became dictator of Peru in 1824 and the creation of Bolivia in 1825.
Who is this man? • Andrew Jackson
President Andrew Jackson • Started career as a lawyer in Tennessee • Killed a man in a duel when his wife was insulted • Became wealthy enough to buy slaves and a mansion called the Hermitage • Major general in the War of 1812 and became a national hero when he defeated the British at New Orleans. • “Old Hickory” was a representative of the common man. • President from 1829-1837
“Interesting” Facts about Jackson • Only U.S. President to pay off the national debt and leave money in the treasury. • 1835: 1st assassination attempt on a sitting president. • 1st member of the House of Representatives from Tennessee once they achieved statehood. • 1st governor of the Florida territory. • 1st president elected from a state west of the Appalachian Mountains.
What do you see in the picture? Purpose? Value? Limitations?
Indian Removal Act • Signed into law on May 28th, 1830 by President Jackson. • Authorized the president to grant unsettled lands west of the Mississippi in exchange for Indian lands within state borders. • Some tribes went peacefully, but many resisted relocation. Focused on the Five Civilized Tribes, which were autonomous nations in the southeastern US. • Removal was supposed to be voluntary, most realized that this act would mean the inevitable removal of Indians from most states. • This act was highly controversial and there was significant opposition including: Congressman Davy Crockett and Abraham Lincoln.
Trail of Tears • Between 1838-39, the Cherokees were forcibly moved west by the US government. • How to deal with the “Indian Problem”. • White settlers wanted (and felt entitled to) land. Whites did not care how “civilized” their neighbors were. • Approximately 4,000 Cherokees died on the forced march from their homes in the south to “Indian Territory” in Oklahoma. • General Winfield Scott and 7,000 soldiers to expedite the removal process. Native Americans were marched 1,200 miles; whooping cough, typhus, dysentery, cholera and starvation were epidemic along the way.
Case Study: Argentina and the Conquest of the Desert • Military campaign directed by General Julio Argentino Roca in the 1870’s to establish Argentine dominance over Patagonia, which was inhabited by indigenous peoples. • Extended Argentine power into Patagonia and ended the possibility of Chilean expansion there. • At least 1,000 indigenous peoples (Mapuche Indians) were killed by soldiers and another 15,000 were displaced. • Mapuche Indians were supported by Chile and still live there today. • The conquest is highly controversial: some describe the conquest as “bringing civilization”, others label it a genocide.