Lesson Seven The Greatest Invention By Lord Dunsany Hu Yong
Teaching Procedures 1. Lead-in Work 2. Language Study 3. Text Appreciation 4. Exercises
Lead-in Work • 1. Name “The four great inventions of Ancient China”in English. • Papermaking • Commercial Printing • Gunpowder • Compass
Lead-in Work • 2. What do you think was "the greatest invention" in the story? What possible meanings can the title denote (indicate / signify) ?
Lead-in Work • 3. How many characters do we have in the story? And what are their roles respectively?
Lead-in Work 4. Routine Work for Each New Lesson • 1.) Figure out the moral of the story. You can refer to No.8 on p175. Find some examples in reality or in literary works to illustrate your idea; • 2.) Analyze the structure of the text; • 3.) Find out some writing skills of the author;
Author Lord Dunsany洛德·邓萨尼(July 24, 1878—October 25, 1957) was an Irish writer and dramatist. His full name was Edward John Moreton Drax Plunkett, 18th Baron Dunsany. To be continued on the next page.
Author • Lord Dunsany was educated at Eton College and Sandhurst. He served as an officer during the Boer War and World War I. He was sportsman, and was at one time the chess and pistol champion of Ireland. His fame arose, however, from his prolific writings of short stories, novels, plays and poetry, reportedly mostly written with a quill pen.
His writings: The work of Lord Dunsany must be the foundation of any good library of fantasy and science fiction. His most notable fantasy short stories include:The Gods of Pegana, The Book of Wonder, The Man Who Ate the Phoenix etc. His significance within the genre of fantasy writing is considerable.
Part Two Language Study
Language Study Contents • Word Study • Phrases and Expressions • Word Building • Grammar
I. Word Study Word list: • appeal • aspiration • bribe • brood • charge • fierce • figure 8. glory 9. mastery 10. plague 11. rival 12. soothe 13. spur
I. Word Study 1. appeal Chinese v. a. to make a serious request for help, money, information b. to be attractive or interesting c. to make formal request to a court 恳求，呼吁；有吸引力；上诉 Word formation n. appeal • Examples: • She appealed to the kidnappers to release her son. • Does the idea of working abroad appeal to you? • If you are not satisfied, you can appeal.
I. Word Study appeal n. Chinese 恳求，呼吁； 吸引力； 上诉， 申诉 • Examples: • appeal for aid • an appeal to parents to supervise their children • The film has great appeal for young audience. • an appeal to the European court of Human Rights
I. Word Study 2.aspiration n. a strong desire to have or achieve sth. Word formation v. aspire • Examples: • When I was 12 I had aspirations to play professional football. • He had no political aspirations.
I. Word Study 3. bribe v. to pay money to sb. to persuade him to help you by doing sth. dishonest n. money or sth. valuable given to sb. to persuade him to do sth. dishonest • Examples: • The criminal bribedthe policeman to let him go free. • They tried to bribe the official into silence. • The official took bribes from those who wanted favors.
I. Word Study 4. brood Chinese v. to keep thinking for a long time about sth. that makes you very angry or worried 沉思；念念不忘，计较；思考 • Examples: • She sat there brooding on whether life is worth living. • Don’t brood over lost opportunities. • Just as physicists worry about the nature of matter, historians brood about the study of man’s past.
I. Word Study 5. charge Select the proper meaning of “charge” in each sentence. v.a. to rush in or as if in an attack b.toask in payment c. to declare officially and openly d.to load b b The hotel charged me $50 for a room for the night. a Suddenly the wild animal charged at us. cHe was charged with murder and betrayal. d The soldiers charged their guns and prepared to fire.
I. Word Study 6. fierce a. very strong; done with very strong feelings and energy • fierce emotions • fierce attack • fierce competition • fierce anger • fierce look • fierce tempest • 强烈的感情 • 猛烈的进攻 • 激烈的竞争 • 极度愤怒 • 面目狰狞 • 狂风暴雨
I. Word Study 7. figure Select the proper meaning of “figure” in each sentence. n.a. shape b. person c. number d. character e. an amount of money a You have to watch our diet if you want to keep your figure. ckeeping unemployment figure down b both a political and a religious figure d to play the figure of a judge ean estimated figure of $200 million
I. Word Study 8. glory n. great honor; praise Word formation • 凯旋 • 得意之时 • 死，升天 • 为做某事而自豪 • 自夸 • 光荣的牺牲 • Examples: • return with glory • in one’s glory • go to glory • glory to do/in doing sth. • glorify oneself • a glorious death v. glorify a. glorious
Examples: • The enemy had complete mastery of the seas and no ships could get through. • Everybody was impressed by her quick mastery of those complicated theories. I. Word Study 9. mastery n. the status of master or ruler; control Word formation v. n. (to) master
I. Word Study 10. plague n. a. any disease causing death and spreading quickly to a large number of people b. sth. that annoys you v. to cause trouble to sb.; to annoy sb. • Examples: • A great many people have been swept away by the plague. • That child is a plague of her life. • The little boy plagued his father by begging over and over to go to the zoo.
I. Word Study 11. rival n. a person, group or an organization that you compete with in sport, business, a fight, etc. v. to be as good or important as sb. or sth. else • Examples: • The two girls were rivals for Jack’s attention. • The college’s facilities rival those of Harvard and Yale.
I. Word Study 12. soothe Word formation v.a. to make someone feel calmer and less anxious, upset or angry b. to make a pain less severe a. soothing adv. soothingly • Examples: • She soothed the child who was afraid. • I bought some lozenges to soothe my • throat.
I. Word Study 13. spur v.a. to encourage a horse to go faster b. to incite or stimulate n. a fact or event that makes you try harder to do sth. • Examples: • The rider spurred on to his destination. • He was spurred on by poverty to commit a crime. • To him difficulties were simply spurs to endeavor. • Ambition is an excellent spur for the young. The end of Word Study.
II. Phrases and Expressions List: • adapt to • be born to do/be sth. • but for • drive away • if only • let loose • 7. lose grip on • 8. mark off • 9. put into/in • 10. what if • 11. within one’s grasp
II. Phrases and Expressions 1. adapt to 适应 to change your ideas or behavior so that you can deal with a new situation cf. adapt for • Examples: • Most students have little difficulty adapting to college life. • When he moved to Canada, the children adapted to the change very well. To be continued on the next page.
II. Phrases and Expressions adapt for 改装，改造 to change sth. so that it can be used in a different purpose • Examples: • The materials can be adapted for use with older children. • You can adapt this fabric for anything from driver’s suit to gloves.
II. Phrases and Expressions 2. be born to do/be sth. to be very suitable for a particular job, activity, etc. “born” phrases • Examples: • She was born to be a dancer. • He is a person born to lead. To be continued on the next page.
II. Phrases and Expressions • cf. • be born with a silver spoon in one’s mouth • be born under a lucky star • born and bred • I wasn’t born yesterday. • There is one born every minute. • cf. • 生于富贵人家 • 生来就幸运 • 土生土长 • 不要拿我当小孩。 • 随时有人犯傻。
II. Phrases and Expressions 3. but for without, if not for • Examples: • But for these interruptions the meeting would have finished half an hour ago. • But for my brother's help, I would not have finished.
II. Phrases and Expressions 4. drive away to make someone stop wanting sth. or stop wanting to be with someone • Examples: • Increasing prices will only drive customers away. • Your possessiveness will drive Liz away if you’re not careful.
II. Phrases and Expressions 5. if only used to express a strong wish • Examples: • If only I had a car, I could get out of this place. • “If only I could see for three days,” said the blind girl.
II. Phrases and Expressions 6. let loose to let sb. or sth. go free • Examples: • You should not let loose your indignation in this way. • Don’t let your dog loose if there are any sheep around.
II. Phrases and Expressions 7. lose grip on a. to lose the power and control over b. to become less able to understand things or deal with them “grip” phrases • Examples: • Thepoliceman would not lose his grip on the thief. • Don’t lose your grip on the rope or you’ll fall. • Are you starting to lose your grip on reality?
II. Phrases and Expressions • be in the grip of sth. 处于不利局势之中 • The forest is still in the grip of winter. • get a grip on oneself 控制自己的感情 • Stop being hysterical and get a grip on yourself. • have a grip on sth. 对某事的控制 • The church no longer has a strong grip on the population.
II. Phrases and Expressions 8. mark off to make an area separate by drawing a line around it or putting a rope around it • Examples: • We marked off the limits of our lots with stakes. • The place was marked off as a tennis court. • Her smiling eyes marks her off from other girls.
II. Phrases and Expressions 9. put into/in a. to enter a port or harbor b.to spend time or use energy working or practising sth. c. to interrupt sb. in order to say sth. “put” phrases • Examples: • The ship put in a port. • You have to put in a lot of effort to learn a new language. • He put in a good word for me.
II. Phrases and Expressions • cf. • put across • put away • put down • put forward • put off • put through • cf. • 表达清楚 • 收拾起来； 存钱 • 批评某人 • 提出 • 延期 • 为某人接通电话
II. Phrases and Expressions 10. what if what would happen if • Examples: • What if we move the picture over here? • It sounds like a good offer, but what if it’s a trick?
II. Phrases and Expressions 11. within one’s grasp “grasp” phrases to be able to achieve or attain sth. • Examples: • Success is within our grasp now. • She has an excellent position within • her grasp.
II. Phrases and Expressions • cf. • 力量达不到 • 深刻了解 • 在······掌握中 • 抓紧 • [谚]贪多必失。 • cf. • beyond one’s grasp • have a good grasp of • in the grasp of • keep a firm grasp on • Grasp all, lose all.
III. Word Building List: • prefix – a- • prefix – un-
III. Word Building a-: in a particular condition or way ashore (para. 5) prefix • Examples: • They were walking abreast. • He was standing a few steps apart from them. • She left the door ajar. • Many of those visitors came from afar.
III. Word Building uncork (para. 5) • un-: +v. toshow an • opposite prefix • 脱衣服 • 解开纽扣 • 揭开盖子，揭露 • 解开 • 打开包裹 • 脱去面具 • 解开包裹 undress unbutton uncover untie unwrap unmask unpack
IV. Grammar List: • usage of “as” • relative pronoun as the object of a preposition in relative clause
IV. Grammar as • “As” is used as a preposition to introduce an object complement with verbs such as regard, describe, introduce. It can be followed by a noun, an adjective, a participle, etc. And I had not thought it, for he was not at all what one would regard as the figure of a soldier. the object complement of “what”
IV. Grammar as 2) “As” is used as a conjunction to introduce an adverbial of manner. Example: It is not to say that everyone would have acted as he did, or as Usher, Windsor and Skutnik. as a conjunction to introduce a clause of manner
IV. Grammar as 3)“As” is used as a relative pronoun to function as subject, object or predictive referring to what is stated in the main clause. More examples Example: But warfare, as he explained to me, has altered. relative pronoun as object of “explained”, refer to warfare To be continued on the next page.