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Summary of The SAP Ecosystem and Functional Software

Summary of The SAP Ecosystem and Functional Software

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Summary of The SAP Ecosystem and Functional Software

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  1. Summary of The SAP Ecosystem and Functional Software

  2. Review • Last time – we looked at various topologies for implementing enterprise systems • This time – we will look at how SAP provides a “fairly” complete infrastructure for • System configuration • System development and customization • System testing • System deployment

  3. Lecture Structure • It’s a high-level overview of SAP / R3 • Breadth not depth at this point • I’ll breeze through many screens to demonstrate navigation through the SAP GUI

  4. Course Simulations • We will use various separate SAP instances throughout this course • Global Bike configuration • ABAP • Web Dynpro • And possibly some sort of integration tool

  5. Introduction (Roles and Responsibilities) • This is my taxonomy • Developers customize SAP • Administrators designate roles to other users and tune the system • Responsible for security administration • Responsible for deployment activities • Implementers configure SAP • Third party integrators interface SAP with other software packages • And of course, the users

  6. SAP Architecture (Introduction) • Keep in mind that • this is the most complex software package that you have ever seen • It’s been around for a very long time and has remained backward compatible • It’s written in and developed by Germans

  7. SAP Architecture (Introduction) From BC ABAP Programming

  8. SAP Logical Architecture (1) • Underneath, there is a database and a database management system • SQL Server, ORACLE, MaxDB, and HANA are supported • The R/3 Basis is really an operating system within an operating system • The Basis is it’s own virtualization system too • There is no user contact with the underlying operating system

  9. SAP Logical Architecture (2) • ABAP workbench is the development environment with which you write, debug, and test ABAP applications • ABAP is the programming language of SAP and resembles COBOL • An R/3 application has special meaning • It’s an ABAP program • It’s has a well-defined structure

  10. SAP Logical Architecture (3) • Our presentation component will be the NetWeaver program that you used in IS 365 • All user interaction is through the presentation component

  11. SAP Layers • SAP is built using three layers

  12. SAP (Database Layer) • SAP interacts with other RDMSs • (ORACLE, SQL Server, DB2, INFORMIX, etc… • However, the database layer stores everything for the entire SAP “instance” • ABAP code • User accounts • EVERYTHING!

  13. SAP (Application Layer) • Application servers run ABAP applications • We typically have many of them • The server group is load balanced • A message server communicates state information between application servers • More later

  14. SAP (Presentation Layer) • It’s NetWeaver • We will not get into the topic yet but there is much that can be done with Netweaver • The presentation layer interacts with the application layer in a very structured way • As you complete screens, you perform dialog steps” • Control passes back and forth between the presentation layer and application layer

  15. SAP (Presentation Layer)

  16. Application Server (Structure) • Application servers are responsible for two things • Dispatching work across a network of application servers • Performing work (work processes) • Execute dialog steps • Gateways communicate with other application servers • Shared memory is used to persist application context

  17. Application Server (Illustration)

  18. The SAP Programming Model (1) • This discussion is based on the cardinal rule that the database can never be left in an inconsistent state or a transaction be lost • But we might have thousands of users concurrently recording transactions • You should see the synchronization problem

  19. The SAP Programming Model (2) • Executing an application (transactions) is done by completing one or more dialog screens • Each screen is called a dialog step • Each dialog step corresponds to a database Logical Unit of Work LOW • ABAP provides constructs to bundle several DB LUWs into a SAP LOW


  21. Structure of a Work Process

  22. Types of Work Processes • Work processes have different types • Dialog work process operate with user requests to execute dialog steps • Update processes execute database updates that are parted of a bundled SAP UOW • Background processes are executed without user interaction • Enqueue processes are used for locking • Spool processes are used for printing and archiving

  23. Summary • An applicationprogram has one or more screens which are processed by the screen processor of a work process • The processinglogic of a program gets data from screens, processes it, and returns data to screens

  24. Screens • Unlike the VB form with which you are familiar, the ABAP screen is much more structured • Two types • Screens have a definition and flow logic created using a screen painter • Selectionscreens and lists provide a simplified way to select data for a list or report

  25. ABAP Program Structure • ABAP programs execute within individual dialog steps • A program is divided into processing blocks

  26. ABAP Program • Declare global data here • Create selection screen definitions • Dialog modules, event blocks, and subroutines are all processing blocks • We will delve into the structure more later

  27. Types of ABAP Programs (1) • A program’s technical attributes and capabilities are determined by its type • Type1 programs are executable programs • They do not need to be controlled by screens • Type 1 programs are often called reports • Type M programs are controlled through screen flow logic and must be started from a transaction code

  28. Types of ABAP Programs (2) • TypeF programs are function modules containing reusable functiond • TypeI programs are includes • Includes just break up programs into smaller chunks.

  29. Administrator (Overview) • Performance • User and role management • Deployment of test and production systems

  30. Administrator (Tuning) • Significant system management and performance tuning is necessary in large enterprises • We can tune and monitor memory management • In some enterprises we have HTTP and other services • System monitoring

  31. Administrator (User Groups) • User groups allow user administration to be distributed among several administrators • Groups are also used to perform “mass maintenance” on several users • Transaction code SUGR to show user groups

  32. Administrator (Roles) • Access to resources is granted through roles • Roles are hierarchical and have different types • Single roles contain authorization data • Composite roles are created using multiple composite roles, which are then assigned to users • SAP ships with predefined bundle of standard roles (single and composite)

  33. Administrator (Roles) • Transaction code PFCG to view roles • We are in role Z_ABAP

  34. Administrator (Roles) • Roles

  35. Administrator (Deployment) • SAP manages deployment of system changes from development to training to test to production • Other system types can be defined • The process is called transport (more in a moment)

  36. Administrator (Other) • Data must be archived • System performance needs to be monitored and tuned

  37. Implementer (Introduction) • In my opinion a formal definition gets a bit fuzzy here • We use the IMG to configure (customize) the system • We use the SAP system itself to create all sorts of “master data” • Production schedules • You did some of this in IS 365

  38. (IMG) Introduction • IMG is short for Implementation Guide • It contains all of the actions to implement, control and document the SAP system • General Settings • Enterprise Structure • Financial Accounting • And all of the functional sub systems

  39. (IMG) General Settings • Country settings (countries in which we do business) • Currencies in which we do business • Public calendars containing holidays, workday configuration • Once configured these are either hard to change or cannot be changed

  40. (IMG) (Illustration)

  41. IMG (Enterprise Structure) • Here, we describe our organizational structure to the SAP system (Organizational Units) • It’s not easy to change the organizational structure once it has been created

  42. IMG (Enterprise Structure – Parts) • Financial accounting • Controlling accounting • Logistics • Sales • Materials Management • Plant Maintenance • Production • HR

  43. Definement and Assignment • Configuration of the enterprise structure (and many other components) requires a two-step process • Definement • Create organizational structures • Assignment • Assign those organizational structures to other organizational structures

  44. Definement and Assignment (Examples) • You define company codes and assign them to a company • You define credit control areas and assign them to a company code • There are hundreds of these • We will get through many of the core functions in this course

  45. IMG – Business Configuration (BC) Sets • In this class, we will “globally” configure system elements using the “SAP Reference IMG” • In practice, we use BC sets • BC sets can be created for specific processes • These BC sets can be deployed separately • SAP provides numerous BC sets for industries and industry sectors • We can create our own BC sets too

  46. BC Set (Implementation) • Types: • Simple BC sets contain configuration data • Hierarchical BC sets contain other BC sets • The hierarchy can be nested • Attributes • Name • Type • Release information • Change information (person, date time)

  47. SAP Transport (1) • In SAP, instances (clients) are provisioned into different types • Development (created from production backups) • After development is complete, the system is copied to a “test / QA” system • Then to a “consolidation system” • Finally, the test system is deployed to the production system • Custom intermediate systems can also be created

  48. SAP Transport (2) • The Transport Organizer is the tool used to mange transport of BCs and development code from one instance to another • Transaction code for the Transport Organizer is SE01 • STMS for the Transport Management System

  49. SAP Development • THIS IS A MONSTER • Unlike most development environments you are used to, all code (programs) are stored inside of the SAP instance itself • Code is deployed using transports mentioned previously • There are different types (categories) of code

  50. SAP Development (Interface) • The ObjectNavigator is the entry point into the ABAP objects (programs) (Transaction code SE80) • The ABAP Editor is used to create, edit, test, and debug ABAP applications • The Data Browser lets you look at the SAP tables from the SAP / ABAP API • … And Much More