Executive Branch“The executive power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the term of four years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same term, be elected”Article II, Section 1
Constitutional Requirements to be President • SSCG13 The student will describe the qualifications for becoming President of the U.S. • Explain the written qualifications for President of the United States. • Describe unwritten qualifications common to past presidents. Constitutional Requirements to be President • Natural born Citizen • 35 years old • Resident of the U.S. for at least 14 years *The Vice President’s qualifications are the same as the President with the exception that he/she can not have their primary residence in the same state as the President.
Informal Presidential Qualifications • College Educated • Military Experience • Prior government experience Most have been white, male, protestants with families
What voters want….The impossible dream! • Cooperation w/Congress • Peacekeeper • Ability to solve economic problems • Someone with good character, judgment, and humor • A sense of purpose • Tough, decisive, competent, effective & fair • A leader with initiative
How is the President Elected? National Convention Delegates choose the nominee of each major party – with conventions held in the summer of election year Presidential Primaries In states with primaries, party voters select some or all delegates to national convention and/or express preference for party’s nomination State Conventions Party voters select some or all of the delegates to the national convention Candidates must take two paths to win their party’s nomination: (1) Either through primaries or (2) party state conventions Local Caucuses Party voters in local meetings choose delegates to state conventions
How is the President Elected? Electoral College Presidential electors meet in State capitals on Monday following the second Wednesday in December to cast electoral votes. 270 needed to win. Election Day Voters cast their ballots on Tuesday following the first Monday in November. Voters actually choose presidential electors. Democrat Nominee Republican Nominee Third Party Candidates
How does the Electoral College Work? • Electoral votes are determined by total number of senators and representatives in each state • Largest state – California, has 55 electoral votes Example Georgia has 2 senators and 14 representatives – total electoral votes are 16 • Electors are party loyalists that are chosen by the state parties • Voters elect the slate of electors on Election Day. For Georgia: 16 Republicans or 16 Democrats, depending on majority vote. • 23rd Amendment allows for 3 electoral votes for Wash. DC • Majority of Electors: 270 of 538 is necessary to win.
Inauguration of the President Term of Office: Four Years Inauguration: January 20th
20th Amendment • “Lame Duck” Amendment • Moves inauguration to January 20th from original March date • Congressional start date moved to January in same amendment • Length of time for a sitting president who is not re-elected is reduced • Goal: prevent inactivity or hasty decisions on way out of office
Presidential Term Limits • Washington began the tradition of serving only two terms, but it was really unlimited until the 22nd Amendment, which gave two rules: • No one can be elected as President more than twice. • No one that serves more than two years of another President’s term can be elected more than once.
Benefits of the Presidency 1.Salary: $400,000 per year (beginning in 2001) 2. Perks: • White House w/staff of 100+ • Doctors and Health Care • Expense Account of $50,000 • Air Force One and a fleet of jets and helicopters • Camp David – vacation spot in Maryland • Pension, Retirement, and Secret Service for 10 years after they leave office
White House 132 rooms, 35 bathrooms, 28 fireplaces, 8 staircases, 3 elevators and 6 levels in the Residence Entertainment Movie theater, bowling lanes, putting green Pension Plan $166,700 a year free mailing privileges for nonpolitical correspondence, free office space, $96,000 a year for office help, and, during the first thirty months after their term of office has ended, up to $150,000 for staff assistance. Secret Service protection for 10 years for Pres & First Lady (children until they are 16) Benefits of the Presidency
Air Force One The White House Camp David Marine One
Vice Presidential Roles • President in Waiting • Acting President of the Senate and can vote in order to break a tie. • Power over presidential disability as stated in the 25th Amendment. • Chairs Commissions, meets foreign dignitaries, and advises the President. • All other responsibilities come from the President.
Provisions of the Vice President • Salary $230,700 per year • Lives in House on Observatory Hill • Located in the U.S. Naval Observatory in Washington, D.C. • Home to the Vice President since 1974
25th Amendment Procedures dealing with Presidential Disability • Vice President becomes President if the President resigns, is removed or dies. • If there is a vacancy in the Vice Presidency, then the President appoints a new V.P. and both houses of Congress must approve him. • The Vice President becomes acting President if the President is unable to serve temporarily. • The President becomes acting President as soon as he declares himself fit, unless the Vice President, a majority of the Cabinet and 2/3 of the Congress declare him still unfit. Then the Vice President will remain the acting President until it is determined that the President is fit.
Presidential Succession Act • Following World War II, a new Presidential Succession Act of 1947 was passed • Placed the Speaker of the House and the president pro tempore of the Senate behind the vice president • The line of succession then extended to the executive department heads in the order in which their agencies were created.
Presidential Succession John Boehner, Speaker Patrick Leahy, Pres Pro-Tempore John Kerry, State Neil Wolen, Treasury (temp until Lew) Leon Panetta, Defense… waiting on Hagel confirmation to retire!! Eric Holder, US Attorney General, Dept of Justice
2013 - Energy 2012 - Agriculture 2011 – Interior 2010 – HUD (& State) 2009 - Justice 2008 – Energy 2007 – Justice 2006 – Veteran’s Affairs 2005 – Commerce 2004 – Commerce 2003 – Justice & Transportation 2002 – Interior 2001 – Veteran’s Affairs 2000 – Energy 1999 – HUD 1998 - Commerce 1997 – Agriculture 1996 – HHS 1995 – Transportation 1994 – Agriculture 1993 – Interior 1992 – Agriculture 1991 – Interior 1990 – Veteran’s Affairs 1989 – None 1988 – Interior 1987 – Agriculture 1986 – Agriculture Did you know?One Cabinet member stays out of State of the Union Address…
Original Intent: The Formal Powers • Executive with limited power • Enforce the laws of Congress • Handle foreign policy • Be chief executive and head of state • Broadly defined constitutional powers for flexibility (has resulted in expanded power) • Commander in Chief • Grant pardons & reprieves • Report on State of the Union
Morale builder Party leader Legislative leader Coalition builder Crisis manager Personnel recruiter World leader Budget setter Agenda/policy setter Conflict resolver Persuader and policy communicator Informal Powers
Roles of the President SSCG12 The student will analyze the various roles played by the President of the United States; include Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, chief executive, chief agenda setter, representative of the nation, chief of state, foreign policy leader, and party leader.
Chief Executive • Enforce the law • Head the bureaucracy • Appoint federal officials • Negotiate treaties • Grant pardons, reprieves and amnesty
Chief of State • Representative of nation • Symbol of America • Host to distinguished delegates and visitors
Chief of the Economy • Guard the Economy • Prevent depressions • Balance budget
Commander in Chief • Civilian control of the military • Assignment of troops with war declaration from Congress • Sending troops without formal war declaration • Gulf of Tonkin Resolution • War Powers Act 1974
Party Leader • Shape party platform • Campaign for party • Mobilize public opinion
Chief Legislator/Agenda Setter • State of the Union Address • Recommend legislation • Present the budget • Veto power
Chief Diplomat • Treaty making with Senate approval • Establish diplomatic relations • Executive agreements
Presidential Powers SSCG4 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the organization and powers of the national government.
Executive Powers • Commander in Chief Gulf of Tonkin Resolution – while troops are in conflict, the President can take any action to protect the troops short of declaring war. War Powers Act – President cannot send troops out unless: • Congress declares War • A law authorizes the action • National Emergency: but the President must follow 2 rules: • Notify Congress within 48 hours • Cannot keep troops abroad for more than 60 days without Congressional Approval.
Executive Powers • Enforces Laws • Executive Agreement – agreements Presidents make on behalf of the U.S. with foreign countries that do not require Senate approval. • Treaty – agreements Presidents make on behalf of the U.S. with foreign countries that require Senate approval.
Executive Powers • Power of Appointment – appoints federal officials along with judges and Supreme Court justices. • Power of Removal – can remove federal officials but not judges or justices. • Executive Privilege – the right to withhold information from Congress and the Courts
Legislative Powers • Recommend Legislation 3 formal messages: State of the Union Address Economic Report Budget Message • Approve Legislation – signs bill into law
Legislative Powers • The Veto Power – forbid legislation • The Pocket Veto – to sit on the bill for ten days without signing it and it is a law. However, if Congress adjourns within ten days then it cannot be overridden. • To call Special Sessions of Congress
Judicial Powers • Appoint Judges and Justices to the Supreme Court • *Reprieves – delay carrying out of punishments in federal crimes • *Pardons – release from punishment in federal crimes by absolute or conditional • *Amnesty – blanket pardon given to groups of people **These do not work in cases of impeachment or in state crimes
Fight inflation Keep taxes low Promote economic growth Prevent recession Create jobs Chief Advisors Sec of Treasury Director of OMB Ex-officio Chair of FED Ben Barnanke FED is key to interest rates and growth of economy FED is independent regulatory agency Members have staggered terms beyond the president’s term FED can’t be fired for policy decisions Economic Policy
National Security • In a national emergency: planning, command, unity falls to National Security Council • Diplomacy and the military are used as instruments of foreign policy • Congress must appropriate and authorize funding for treaties and war
Party Leadership • Informal head of party • Rarely have control on state and local politicians • Can’t control party members in Congress b/c of constituents
Legislative & Coalition Builder • Send messages to Congress on policy and agenda • Visit the Hill to “twist arms” • Acts as politician • Conflict manager, negotiator, bargainer, reconciler, coalition builder, persuader
Relationship w/Congress • Appointments which require Senate confirmation • Federal judges, SC justices, Ambassadors, Dept. Secretaries, US Attorney • Negotiate treaties • Binding only w/agreements of 2/3 of Senate • Exec Agreement – b/t head of countries; are as binding as treaties
Budgeting • Way to control bureaucracy • Increases/decreases based on policy • Budget requests must go through OMB from all departments and agencies before going to Congress • OMB writes the budget submitted to Congress
Impoundment & Recissions • Impoundment • Refusal of president to spend funds appropriated by Congress. • Budget Reform Act of 1974 requires notification of Congress • Congress has 45 days to delete item or pass resolution demanding release • Recission • Recommendation of president to cut part of appropriations bills
Prime Time President • Press conferences • Speeches from Oval Office • Radio messages • First 100 days is the “honeymoon period” • The longer they stay in office, the less popular they become...interest groups grow impatient, unkept promises, blamed for problems left by previous president
Press sees itself as the protector of democracy Filtering – Press interpretation of what is said and what it means Spin Doctors – put twists on what was said and done President can “leak” info to test reaction (trial balloons) to new policy President & the Press
Presidential Style and Characterby James David Barber • Active-long hours, new direction, strong leadership, innovative policies • Passive-less time and energy, let Congress take control • Positive-enjoy the power, like the challenge of the office • Negative-sense of duty to serve, try to prove themselves