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Richard Nixon

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Richard Nixon

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  1. Richard Nixon

  2. Born: Yorba Linda, California on January 9, 1913 to Frank and Hannah Nixon

  3. Nixon Library and Museum

  4. Nixon Library and Museum

  5. Education of Nixon Duke University Law School 1934 1930

  6. Personal Successes • Jan. 9, 1937 is admitted into the California Bar. • Joins law firm Wingert and Bewley and in a little over a year is a full partner • June 21, 1940 marries Thelma Catherine (Pat) Ryan

  7. Gravesite of Richard and Pat Nixon He died in NYC on April 22, 1994 from a massive stroke but is buried back in California in his home town of Yorba Linda

  8. Served in WWII (Navy)(1942 – 1946) • 1942 - Moves to Washington DC to join the Office of Price Admin – agency in charge with regulating wartime prices and rationing • 1943 – Applies for and is accepted into the Navy – serves as a ground officer • 1945 through ‘46 – He begins to work on Navy contracts

  9. Start of Political Career Anti-Communist Stance Needed an issue: US House of Representatives (1947)

  10. House Term • Is elected as the Representative for the 12th Congressional District in California • Member of the House Un-American Activities Committee • Investigates Alger Hiss: lawyer, young Harvard grad who worked for the State Dept. but was also a member of the communist party • Nixon pursues case even though he is pressured to drop it. Succeeds in convicting Hiss of perjury (lying under oath). • The case and conviction captivate Americans and propels Nixon’s political career

  11. Senate Term • Due to his popularity, he runs for Senate. Defeats another incumbent Helen Douglas in 1950 • 1952 – Allegations arose that he misused campaign funds. He and his campaign funds purchase a tv spot to defend his use of funds. • In his “Fund Crisis” speech or as it is commonly called “Checkers” speech, he tells America that the only gift he received during the election was…

  12. …Checkers - a cocker spaniel

  13. Senate Race Anti-Communist Stance Needed an issue: Senator (1951) Earned the Nickname: “Tricky Dick” For his derisive comments directed at Helen Douglas after he accused her of being a left-wing (communist) sympathizer

  14. Vice-President Nixon (1953-1961) • His “Checkers” speech came right in the middle of his campaigning as the potential VP for Dwight Eisenhower • Afterwards, thousands of telegrams came to the campaign headquarters asking Eisenhower to keep him on the ticket. • November 4, 1952 – Elected VP with Eisenhower • November 6, 1956 – Elected VP again with Eisenhower

  15. 1960 Presidential Election Lost to JFK Participated in the first televised presidential debate Political Defeats / Setbacks • 1962 Gubernatorial Race Lost to Jerry Brown • Afterwards, Nixon reports, “You won’t have Nixon to kick around anymore, because, gentlemen, this is my last press conference.”

  16. President Nixon (1969 – 1974)

  17. Indecision on future • 1963 - Practiced Law in NY • 1966 – campaigns on behalf of Republican candidates for the 1966 Congressional elections and takes extensive trips to S. America and the Middle East (’67) • Towards end of ’67, he is really undecided about whether to run for President again • Consults Bill Graham, who urges him to run; gets support from Pat and formally announces his bid for President on Feb. 1, 1968

  18. 1968 Campaign: “Bring Us Together” End Fighting in: Vietnam and Streets of America

  19. “The Great Silent Majority” Speech November 3, 1969

  20. “Silent Majority” • Appealed to the socially conservative Americans who disliked the hippie counterculture and anti-war demonstrators • His VP candidate-Spiro Agnew-was also a very vocal critic of these group • Together, Nixon and Agnew solidified the support of the Conservatives

  21. Democratic Troubles • LBJ was consumed with the Vietnam War and had already announced that he would not seek re-election • Democratic hopefuls – Hubert Humphrey and Robert Kennedy – battled in a tight race with Humphrey having a narrow edge • Kennedy was assassinated before the election • As the Dems were digging deeper into the mud of Vietnam, Nixon was promising peace with honor • His campaign slogan was “Nixon’s the One”

  22. Presidential Election • National election was a three-way race • Nixon, Humphrey, and George Wallace (3rd party candidate) • Nixon defeats Humphrey by nearly 500,000 votes and becomes the 37th President of the US

  23. Nixon Fun Facts • First US President to visit all 50 states.

  24. Bowling Alley (1969)

  25. Julie Nixon married David EisenhowerDecember 22, 1968

  26. Tricia Nixon and Edward CoxJune 12, 1971 • There have been 9 White House Weddings

  27. President with most appearances on Time cover 56

  28. 2nd Lowest Approval Rating: 24%(August 2 – 5, 1974) Lowest: Harry Truman – 22%

  29. Only President who resigned and did not finish his term

  30. He was a practicing Quaker even until his death. His mother had hoped he’d become a missionary but his beliefs mellowed, especially after the Navy

  31. Nixon’s Domestic Affairs

  32. Nixon’s Domestic Issues • His administration marked the end of a long, post-WWII period of prosperity • Entered a period called stagflation Stagflation Inflation Employment Prices go up but less people are working to make money

  33. Causes for the 1970s Stagflation Recession • Vietnam spending • Tax cuts • Oil prices increased

  34. New Economic Policy • 90 day freeze on prices and wages • Tax cuts • Temporary closure of “gold window” • 10% import tax

  35. Economy • Experienced an economic boom following Nixon’s NEP • Began in 1971 and lasted well into 1972 which served him well during the 1972 elections • However, 1973 saw the economy continue its downturn • Food shortage (massive Soviet purchases of wheat) • Oil shock – rise in oil prices and Arab/OPEC oil boycott

  36. Energy Crisis • Worry about the dependency of foreign oil and rising American consumption Alaskan Oil 1969

  37. Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act (1973)

  38. Alaskan Pipeline Construction Started: March 27, 1975 Completed: May 31, 1977 Length: 800 miles • Crosses 3 mountain ranges and over 800 rivers and streams Cost: $8 billion Speed: 5.4 mph Time: 6.2 days Barrels of oil per day: 1 million

  39. Environmental Benefit?

  40. OPEC Oil Embargo • Oil could be used as a “weapon”

  41. Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) Africa -Algeria (1969) -Angola (2007) -Libya (1962) -Nigeria (1971) Middle East -Iran (1960) -Iraq (1960) -Kuwait (1960) -Qatar (1961) -Saudi Arabia (1960) -United Arab Emirates (1967) South America -Ecuador (2007) -Venezuela (1960) Southeast Asia -Indonesia (1962)

  42. Energy Crisis Solutions Emergency Highway Energy Conservation Act (1974) • National Speed Limit: 55 • Benefits: 400 lives saved • Energy saved: ~1%

  43. Environmental Concerns Environmental Protection Agency National Air Quality Standards Act Water Quality Improvement Act

  44. Equality and Civil Rights: African-Americans The Philadelphia Plan: Affirmative Action

  45. Equality and Civil Rights: Women

  46. Drug Enforcement Agency

  47. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) • Enforced rules and standards for workplace safety and health

  48. Ended Military Draft (1973)

  49. 26th Amendment Gave 18 year olds the right to vote in national elections

  50. Roe v. Wade (1973) Legalized abortion in the first trimester of a pregnancy