A. Describe the development of Mesopotamian society including religious, cultural, economic, and political facets of society including Hammurabi’s law code. B. Describe the relationship of religion and political authority in Ancient Egypt.
D. Identifying early trading networks and writing systems existent in the Eastern Mediterranean including those of the Phoenicians.
E. Explain the development and importance of writing including cuneiform, hieroglyphics, and the Phoenician alphabet.
ESSENTIAL QUESTION • How did the Indo-European tribes change our world today?
INDO-EUROPEANS • Nomadic people from the steppes • Dry grasslands N of Caucus Mountains between Black Sea and Caspian Sea. • Pastoral – cattle, goats, sheep, horses • Chariots
TribesLanguages we call Indo-Europeanmodern languages of Europe, SW Asia, S Asia – English, Spanish, Hindi, Persian
Tell where each tribe settled by languages spoken in those areas.Some Slavic speakers moved N & WCeltic, Germanic, and Italic tribes moved through Europe.
Greek & Persian tribes moved South.Aryans crossed the Hindu Kush entered India.SanskritNo one knows why these groups left the steppes.
Grazing lands were drying up.Over-populatedFleeing invadersFleeing diseaseTower of BabelWhatever the reason migrated out in all directions.
HITTITE EMPIRE • 2,000 BC Hittites occupied Anatolia (Asia Minor – Turkey) • Peninsula in Black Sea and Med Sea • Capital – Hattusas • Spoke own language & Babylonian. • Conquered the Babylonians and liked parts of their culture (cultural diffusion)
Adopted Babylonian arts, literature, language, and politicsHittites excelled at war.Conquered an Egyptian army.Chariots of ironEasy to maneuverPulled by 4 horses
ARYANS • 1,500 BC Aryans crossed the NW mountain passes – Hindu Kush • Entered Indus Valley of India • Most of our knowledge of this culture comes from Vedas. • Sacred literature • Four collections of scripture, prayers, magical spells, and instructions for performing rituals.
Most important is the Rig Veda1,028 hymns devoted to Aryan gods.No written languagePassed along orallystrict about accuracy!Mistakes received strict consequences
First arrived in Indus valley3 social classesPriests – BrahminsWarriorsPeasantsClass determined role in society.
As they conquered new lands acquired captives/slaves4th social class – all non-Aryans (Shudrus)As this class grew class restrictions became more strict.
Shudrus did the work the Aryans did not want to do.Varna (skin color) became a distinguishing feature of this system4 social classes became known as the Varnas.
Stayed in social class entire life. Born into it. Could not improve your social class.Later in 15th century explorers from Portugal came across this area and the social classes and called them the caste system.
World History Standard 1The student will analyze the origins, structures and interactions of complex societies in the ancient Eastern Mediterranean from 3500 BCE to 500 BCE.
MINOANS • Powerful seafaring people. Thalassocracy • Dominated trade in the eastern Med. Sea. • 2,000 BC – 1,400 BC • Lived on Crete • Produced finest pottery of the era. • Traded pottery, swords, figurines, precious metals.
Also exported art and culture (cultural diffusion)Big influence on the Greeks!Capital- KnossesRuled by King Minos
Legend King Minos kept a ½ human ½ bull monster called the Minotaur.Locked in a labyrinth or maze.
Minoans loved sports. Boxing, wrestling, bull-leapingWomen had higher rank in Minoan culture than in surrounding cultures.
Polytheisticsacrificed bulls to their gods and possibly humansMinoan culture ended about 1200 BC and we are not sure why.
Theories: • Natural disaster • (earthquake/tsunami) or Volcano • Over-populated • invaders
PHOENICIANS • 1100 BC became most powerful traders in the Med. Sea. Area now called Palestine • Lebanon • Never united into a country – instead began a number of city-states around the Med. Sea which competed with each other for trade.
Some of the major city-states were Byblos, Tyre and Sidon.All were trading centers.Great ship-builders and seafarers.
1st Med. People to explore past the Strait of Gibraltar.Explored as far out as Britain, around Africa and Red Sea.Colonies along coasts of Sicily, Sardinia, and Spain. Greatest was Carthage – North Africa.
Carthage was founded by Tyre in 725 BC. It was known for its slave trade, precious metals, and ivory.
Known for their purple dye made of Murex snails.60,000 snails to make one pound of dye.Also made papyrus.
Phoenicians were merchants so they needed a system of writing.Theirs used symbols to represent sounds.Sounds were called phonetic.
One sign used for one sound. The word alphabet comes from two Phoenician letters: aleph & beth.Adopted by the Greeks.
C. Explain the development of monotheism including the concepts developed by the ancient Hebrews and Zoroastrianism.
Zoroastrianism • founded by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster in Greek) • 6,000 BCE • Oldest of the world religions • Persia – Iran • monotheism
An evil spirit of violence and death, Angra Mainyu, who opposes Ahura Mazda.
ESSENTIAL QUESTION • What led to the change from polytheism to monotheism?
HEBREWS • Greatest influence on their own time and our history (Jews) • Bible – Hebrew nation began with Abraham. • Lived in Sumer • Led by God to travel to Canaan • Crossed Syrian Desert to borders of Palestine.
Then crossed isthmus of Suez into Egypt.Settled in Land of Goshen – east region where Nile flows into the Med. Sea.
Lived peacefully in Egypt for 100’s of years.As population grew Egyptians decided to make them into slaves.Moses led them out of Egypt
Crossed Sinai PeninsulaSome Hebrews had been influenced by Egyptians – idolsMt Sinai – ten commandments – moral lawsYahweh or Jehovahmonotheistic
GREECE • Med. Sea – Greece, Asia Minor, surrounding islands. • One of greatest civilizations in history • Citizens might govern themselves • Modern scientific thought/method • Art, literature, philosophy, sculpture • Idea of perfect human shape • Plato & Aristotle