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Cognitive Learning Models

Cognitive Learning Models

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Cognitive Learning Models

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  1. Cognitive Learning Models

  2. Kohler: Insight Learning • Wolfgang Kohler • Disenchanted with behaviorists explanation for learning • Believed that cognition, or mental processes must be essential to learning • Observational studies of chimpanzees

  3. Insight Learning • Problem – bananas hung outside of chimp’s reach • Initial solutions • Pile up boxes and climb on top • Use sticks to knock the fruit down

  4. Insight Learning • Insight learning • solve complex problems by combining simpler, previously learned responses • Problem-solving occurs through sudden reorganization of perceptions • Placed bananas higher up – neither previously learned solutions sufficient to get the fruit

  5. Insight Learning • When unable to reach the fruit • First – threw the sticks away and kicked the wall • Later, piled up the boxes, grabbed the stick, climbed on the boxes and knocked the fruit down with the stick • Cannot be explained through either operant or classical conditioning alone

  6. Kohler’s Chimps

  7. Tolman: Cognitive Maps • Cognitive maps • Mental representations or images that help organisms navigate through the world • Reinforcement has a greater impact on performance than on learning • i.e., reinforcement serves to motivate the animal to demonstrate what it has learned

  8. Diagram of a Tolman Maze

  9. Cognitive Maps • Three groups of rats • 1) No reinforcement • 2) Reinforced on every trial • 3) No reinforcement for first ten trials; reinforced on all subsequent trials

  10. Error Curve by Day and Food Deprivation

  11. Maze Learning Food/ Goal Box Start A B

  12. Cognitive Maps • Tolman hypothesized that the rats developed cognitive maps of the maze • i.e., Visual/spatial Image or representation of physical space that is used to navigate through the environment • Demonstrated latent learning – learning that takes place in the absence of reinforcement • reinforcement necessary to demonstrate acquisition

  13. Bandura: Social Learning Theory • Observational Learning • Acquisition of behaviors that results from observation rather than direct experience • E.g., • Children learn do cartwheels and handstands • Learn what clothes to wear to fit in (e.g., midriffs; low-riser jeans) • Learn aggressive behavior

  14. Social Learning Theory • Modeling – imitation and reproduction of behaviors of models • Model must be salient (i.e., are attractive, have high status, and are similar to observer) • Parents, peers, siblings, celebrities

  15. Social Learning Theory • Vicarious reinforcement • Learn about the consequences of a behavior by observing a model engage in the behavior and experience consequences • Outcome Expectancies • Learned association between a specific behavior and a specific consequence OR • Belief about the consequences of our behavior

  16. Social Learning Theory • Outcome expectancies • Alcohol makes me relaxed and sociable • Wearing brown polyester will make me a social outcast • If I study for the exam, I will get a good grade • If I eat those cookies, I will feel good • Having sex without a condom will result in enhanced pleasure

  17. Social Learning Theory • Positive outcome expectancies • Belief that the behavior will result in reinforcing or rewarding outcomes • Negative outcome expectancies • Belief that the behavior will result in punishing or negative outcomes

  18. Social Learning Theory • Expectancies influence subsequent behavior • Positive expectancy (i.e., belief that behavior results in reinforcing outcomes) engage in or repeat behavior • Negative expectancy (i.e., belief that behavior results in punishing outcomes)  avoid or discontinue behavior

  19. Aggressive Behavior • Children observed a model behave aggressively toward the BOBO doll • Were more likely to behave aggressively when given the opportunity to play with the BOBO doll • Especially when the model was reinforced for his/her aggressive behavior