Classification • Classification is putting organisms into groups based on similarities and differences • How do you decide who goes into what group? • Look at characteristics • Try to figure out which are the most “important”
Why Classify??? • Human nature- we love to put things in their place! • Organization • Identification • Less Confusion • Show Relationships • Easier – Less to remember
How are organisms classified? • First into three broad categories called domains • A domain is the highest possible classification of organisms • Can also be thought of as a super kingdom – above a kingdom!
Three Domains • Bacteria • Eubacteria • Archaea • Archaeabacteria • Eukarya
Archaebacteria • All organisms in this domain live without oxygen • They also live in very hot or acidic environments • Great Salt Lake or The Dead Sea • Sulfur Spring - hot, acidic waters • Sewage Treatment Plant • Geysers in Yellowstone
Eubacteria • Some of the bacteria in this domain can cause health problems like strep throat and food poisoning • Other bacteria are good to eat, such as those in yogurt • Some change milk into cheese!
Eukarya • Includes all of the organisms with eukaryotic cells – they have a nucleus! • This domain contains most of the organisms we know best • This domain is divided into four kingdoms!
The Six Kingdoms The three domains are divided into six kingdoms
Introduction Six Kingdoms -organized according to type of cells, how they obtain food, number of cells in body • Archaebacteria • Eubacteria • Protists • Fungi • Plants • Animals
Terminology Getting food autotrophs – make own food hetertrophs – get food from other sources Type of cells prokaryotic – no nucleus eukaryotic – with a nucleus
Captures energy from the sun or other chemicals Producer Depends on other organisms to get energy Consumers Autotrophic vs. Heterotrophic NUTRITION
doesnot have a membrane-bound nucleus Few organelles CELL TYPE Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote • does have a membrane- bound nucleus • Many organelles
Terminology continued Body type unicellular – made of only one cell multicellular – made of more than one cell; -have cells with special functions Reproduction sexual – need male and female parents asexual – need only one parent
Uni- one Organism is made of only one cell Multi- many Organism is made of many cells Unicellular vs. Multicellular BODY TYPE
Reproduction • Asexual Reproduction • One Parent • The primary form of reproduction for single-celled organisms such as archaea, bacteria, protists, • Many plants and fungi reproduce asexually as well • Offspring look exactly like parents
Reproduction • Sexual reproduction • Way of producing offspring – otherwise a species dies off! • Offspring look different from parents • Two parents • Occurs in plants and animals
Archaebacteria Eubacteria Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia Archaebacteria Bacteria Eukarya Classification TODAY!!!!! 3 Domains 6 Kingdoms IS THIS THE CLASSIFICATION FOR THE FUTURE??? Through discoveries in DNA and other scientific characteristics the six kingdoms could become 7, 8, 9, 10….. and beyond!!!!! 9
DOMAIN: E U K A R A Y A Animals SIX kingdoms Plants Fungi Protists DOMAIN: Archaeobacteria & Bacteria Archaeobacteria & Eubacteria
Archaebacteria - Same as the domain -”ancient bacteria” -existed before dinosaurs -live in extreme environments -hot springs -acidic environment -methane -unicellular -prokaryotes -some autotrophs, some heterotrophs
Eubacteria Same as the domain Chemical makeup is different from that of archaebacteria Made up of common bacteria -unicellular prokaryote -some autotrophs, some heterotrophs
Protists -“odds and ends” kingdom because its organisms are pretty different from one another. Misfits like paramecium; euglena; volvox; amoeba -protistsinclude all microscopic organisms that are not bacteria, notanimals, not plants and not fungi. -most unicellular, some multicellular -eukaryotes -some autotrophs, some heterotrophs
UNICELLULAR & MULTICELLULAR PROTISTS
Fungi -Unlike plants, fungi cannot make their own food. Most obtain their food from parts of plants that are decaying in the soil. -mushrooms, mold, and mildew -most are multicellular, some (like yeast) are unicellular -eukaryotes -all are heterotrophs – these are NOT plants! -eat dead or decaying organisms Examples include yeast; morel; puffball; Rhizopusstolonifer (bread mold)
Plants -you are probably quite familiar with the members of this kingdom as it contains all the plants that you have come to know -all plants are multicellular -all are eukaryotes -plants are autotrophs Examples: corn; ferns; roses; pine tree, with over 250,000 species, the plant kingdom is the second largest kingdom. Plant species range from the tiny green mosses to giant trees
Animals The animal kingdom is the largest kingdom with over 1 million known species. -all are multicellular -all are eukaryotes -all are heterotrophs Examples: manatee; shark; snakes; worms, coral, mockingbird….