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Classification

Classification

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Classification

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  1. Classification Headings Vocabulary Important Words

  2. CLASSIFICATION & TAXONOMY Classification: • grouping based on similarities Taxonomy: • Branch of Biology • The science of classifyinggrouping and naming of organisms

  3. Aristotle’s Classification Scheme • Greek philosopher who developed first classification system • Divided all organisms into 2 GROUPS: • Non motile (plants) • Motile (animals) • Plants grouped by: • size (small, medium, large) • Animals grouped by: • where they lived (air, water, land)

  4. Binomial Nomenclature • A system for naming organisms by structure created by Linnaeus: • Although Linneaus didn’t realize it, by classifying organisms by structure he was also classifying them by evolutionary relationship • Written in Latin • Includes the organisms : • Genus: CAPITALIZED (noun) • means beginning • Species: lowercase (adj.) Example:Homo(man) sapien (wise/thinking)

  5. Scientific & Common Names Scientific Name: • genus and species name • Iguana iguana • Felis domesticus Common name: • Organism is commonly called • Not used in the scientific community • Green Iguana • Domestic Cat

  6. The “New” Evolutionary Classification • Categories that represent lines of evolutionary descent • Not just physical similarities • This new method is called: Evolutionary Classification (Cladistics) • Scientists classify organisms based on their Evolutionary Beginnings

  7. Cladograms • A diagram that shows evolutionary relationships • Cladograms are useful tools • Help scientists understand how one lineagebranchedfrom another in the course of evolution

  8. Traditional Classification vs. Cladogram Evolutionary Decent: Class Physical Similarities Conical Shells Crustaceans Gastropoda Appendages Crab Barnacle Limpet Molten exoskeleton Segmentation Free-swimminglarvae TRADITIONAL CLASSIFICATION CLADOGRAM

  9. Kingdoms • Broadest of all taxa • Grouped into 3 domains: • Bacteria – • Eubacteria • 2. Archae- • Archeabacteria • 3. Eukarya: • Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia

  10. Characteristics of the 6 Kingdoms 1. Kingdom Eubacteria: a. all microscopic prokaryotes b. almost all are unicellular c. non-motile d. commonly called bacteria 2. Kingdom Archaebacteria: a. prokaryotes b. live in extremeenvironment

  11. 3. Kingdom Protista: a. eukaryotes b. uni andmulticellular c. live in moistenvironments d. most are simple, microscopic&mobile *Examples: paramecium, amoeba, euglena & algae

  12. 4. Kingdom Fungi: a. Eukaryotes b. Uniand Multicellular c. Consumers that do not move d. Decomposedead organisms &/or waste products *Examples: mushrooms, molds, & mildew

  13. 5. Kingdom Plantae: a. stationary,multicelluareukaryotes b. Photosynthetic c. Autotrophs *(make own food) *Examples: plants

  14. 6. Kingdom Animalia: a. Multicellular b. Consumers that eat & digest other organisms (heterotrophs) c. May be herbivores, carnivores & omnivores *Examples: Animals

  15. Kingdom: (Animalia) Phylum: (Chordata) Dorsal nerve cord-cartilage Vertebrae Subphylum:(Vertebrata) 4. Class: (Mammalia) 5. Order: (Primates) 6. Family: (Hominid) 7. Genus: (Homo) 8. Species: (sapien) Complete Classification of Humans